Bitcoin/address validation - Rosetta Code

Comparison between Avalanche, Cosmos and Polkadot

Comparison between Avalanche, Cosmos and Polkadot
Reposting after was mistakenly removed by mods (since resolved - Thanks)
A frequent question I see being asked is how Cosmos, Polkadot and Avalanche compare? Whilst there are similarities there are also a lot of differences. This article is not intended to be an extensive in-depth list, but rather an overview based on some of the criteria that I feel are most important.
For better formatting see https://medium.com/ava-hub/comparison-between-avalanche-cosmos-and-polkadot-a2a98f46c03b
https://preview.redd.it/e8s7dj3ivpq51.png?width=428&format=png&auto=webp&s=5d0463462702637118c7527ebf96e91f4a80b290

Overview

Cosmos

Cosmos is a heterogeneous network of many independent parallel blockchains, each powered by classical BFT consensus algorithms like Tendermint. Developers can easily build custom application specific blockchains, called Zones, through the Cosmos SDK framework. These Zones connect to Hubs, which are specifically designed to connect zones together.
The vision of Cosmos is to have thousands of Zones and Hubs that are Interoperable through the Inter-Blockchain Communication Protocol (IBC). Cosmos can also connect to other systems through peg zones, which are specifically designed zones that each are custom made to interact with another ecosystem such as Ethereum and Bitcoin. Cosmos does not use Sharding with each Zone and Hub being sovereign with their own validator set.
For a more in-depth look at Cosmos and provide more reference to points made in this article, please see my three part series — Part One, Part Two, Part Three
(There's a youtube video with a quick video overview of Cosmos on the medium article - https://medium.com/ava-hub/comparison-between-avalanche-cosmos-and-polkadot-a2a98f46c03b)

Polkadot

Polkadot is a heterogeneous blockchain protocol that connects multiple specialised blockchains into one unified network. It achieves scalability through a sharding infrastructure with multiple blockchains running in parallel, called parachains, that connect to a central chain called the Relay Chain. Developers can easily build custom application specific parachains through the Substrate development framework.
The relay chain validates the state transition of connected parachains, providing shared state across the entire ecosystem. If the Relay Chain must revert for any reason, then all of the parachains would also revert. This is to ensure that the validity of the entire system can persist, and no individual part is corruptible. The shared state makes it so that the trust assumptions when using parachains are only those of the Relay Chain validator set, and no other. Interoperability is enabled between parachains through Cross-Chain Message Passing (XCMP) protocol and is also possible to connect to other systems through bridges, which are specifically designed parachains or parathreads that each are custom made to interact with another ecosystem such as Ethereum and Bitcoin. The hope is to have 100 parachains connect to the relay chain.
For a more in-depth look at Polkadot and provide more reference to points made in this article, please see my three part series — Part One, Part Two, Part Three
(There's a youtube video with a quick video overview of Polkadot on the medium article - https://medium.com/ava-hub/comparison-between-avalanche-cosmos-and-polkadot-a2a98f46c03b)

Avalanche

Avalanche is a platform of platforms, ultimately consisting of thousands of subnets to form a heterogeneous interoperable network of many blockchains, that takes advantage of the revolutionary Avalanche Consensus protocols to provide a secure, globally distributed, interoperable and trustless framework offering unprecedented decentralisation whilst being able to comply with regulatory requirements.
Avalanche allows anyone to create their own tailor-made application specific blockchains, supporting multiple custom virtual machines such as EVM and WASM and written in popular languages like Go (with others coming in the future) rather than lightly used, poorly-understood languages like Solidity. This virtual machine can then be deployed on a custom blockchain network, called a subnet, which consist of a dynamic set of validators working together to achieve consensus on the state of a set of many blockchains where complex rulesets can be configured to meet regulatory compliance.
Avalanche was built with serving financial markets in mind. It has native support for easily creating and trading digital smart assets with complex custom rule sets that define how the asset is handled and traded to ensure regulatory compliance can be met. Interoperability is enabled between blockchains within a subnet as well as between subnets. Like Cosmos and Polkadot, Avalanche is also able to connect to other systems through bridges, through custom virtual machines made to interact with another ecosystem such as Ethereum and Bitcoin.
For a more in-depth look at Avalanche and provide more reference to points made in this article, please see here and here
(There's a youtube video with a quick video overview of Avalanche on the medium article - https://medium.com/ava-hub/comparison-between-avalanche-cosmos-and-polkadot-a2a98f46c03b)

Comparison between Cosmos, Polkadot and Avalanche

A frequent question I see being asked is how Cosmos, Polkadot and Avalanche compare? Whilst there are similarities there are also a lot of differences. This article is not intended to be an extensive in-depth list, but rather an overview based on some of the criteria that I feel are most important. For a more in-depth view I recommend reading the articles for each of the projects linked above and coming to your own conclusions. I want to stress that it’s not a case of one platform being the killer of all other platforms, far from it. There won’t be one platform to rule them all, and too often the tribalism has plagued this space. Blockchains are going to completely revolutionise most industries and have a profound effect on the world we know today. It’s still very early in this space with most adoption limited to speculation and trading mainly due to the limitations of Blockchain and current iteration of Ethereum, which all three of these platforms hope to address. For those who just want a quick summary see the image at the bottom of the article. With that said let’s have a look

Scalability

Cosmos

Each Zone and Hub in Cosmos is capable of up to around 1000 transactions per second with bandwidth being the bottleneck in consensus. Cosmos aims to have thousands of Zones and Hubs all connected through IBC. There is no limit on the number of Zones / Hubs that can be created

Polkadot

Parachains in Polkadot are also capable of up to around 1500 transactions per second. A portion of the parachain slots on the Relay Chain will be designated as part of the parathread pool, the performance of a parachain is split between many parathreads offering lower performance and compete amongst themselves in a per-block auction to have their transactions included in the next relay chain block. The number of parachains is limited by the number of validators on the relay chain, they hope to be able to achieve 100 parachains.

Avalanche

Avalanche is capable of around 4500 transactions per second per subnet, this is based on modest hardware requirements to ensure maximum decentralisation of just 2 CPU cores and 4 GB of Memory and with a validator size of over 2,000 nodes. Performance is CPU-bound and if higher performance is required then more specialised subnets can be created with higher minimum requirements to be able to achieve 10,000 tps+ in a subnet. Avalanche aims to have thousands of subnets (each with multiple virtual machines / blockchains) all interoperable with each other. There is no limit on the number of Subnets that can be created.

Results

All three platforms offer vastly superior performance to the likes of Bitcoin and Ethereum 1.0. Avalanche with its higher transactions per second, no limit on the number of subnets / blockchains that can be created and the consensus can scale to potentially millions of validators all participating in consensus scores ✅✅✅. Polkadot claims to offer more tps than cosmos, but is limited to the number of parachains (around 100) whereas with Cosmos there is no limit on the number of hubs / zones that can be created. Cosmos is limited to a fairly small validator size of around 200 before performance degrades whereas Polkadot hopes to be able to reach 1000 validators in the relay chain (albeit only a small number of validators are assigned to each parachain). Thus Cosmos and Polkadot scores ✅✅
https://preview.redd.it/2o0brllyvpq51.png?width=1000&format=png&auto=webp&s=8f62bb696ecaafcf6184da005d5fe0129d504518

Decentralisation

Cosmos

Tendermint consensus is limited to around 200 validators before performance starts to degrade. Whilst there is the Cosmos Hub it is one of many hubs in the network and there is no central hub or limit on the number of zones / hubs that can be created.

Polkadot

Polkadot has 1000 validators in the relay chain and these are split up into a small number that validate each parachain (minimum of 14). The relay chain is a central point of failure as all parachains connect to it and the number of parachains is limited depending on the number of validators (they hope to achieve 100 parachains). Due to the limited number of parachain slots available, significant sums of DOT will need to be purchased to win an auction to lease the slot for up to 24 months at a time. Thus likely to lead to only those with enough funds to secure a parachain slot. Parathreads are however an alternative for those that require less and more varied performance for those that can’t secure a parachain slot.

Avalanche

Avalanche consensus scan scale to tens of thousands of validators, even potentially millions of validators all participating in consensus through repeated sub-sampling. The more validators, the faster the network becomes as the load is split between them. There are modest hardware requirements so anyone can run a node and there is no limit on the number of subnets / virtual machines that can be created.

Results

Avalanche offers unparalleled decentralisation using its revolutionary consensus protocols that can scale to millions of validators all participating in consensus at the same time. There is no limit to the number of subnets and virtual machines that can be created, and they can be created by anyone for a small fee, it scores ✅✅✅. Cosmos is limited to 200 validators but no limit on the number of zones / hubs that can be created, which anyone can create and scores ✅✅. Polkadot hopes to accommodate 1000 validators in the relay chain (albeit these are split amongst each of the parachains). The number of parachains is limited and maybe cost prohibitive for many and the relay chain is a ultimately a single point of failure. Whilst definitely not saying it’s centralised and it is more decentralised than many others, just in comparison between the three, it scores ✅
https://preview.redd.it/ckfamee0wpq51.png?width=1000&format=png&auto=webp&s=c4355f145d821fabf7785e238dbc96a5f5ce2846

Latency

Cosmos

Tendermint consensus used in Cosmos reaches finality within 6 seconds. Cosmos consists of many Zones and Hubs that connect to each other. Communication between 2 zones could pass through many hubs along the way, thus also can contribute to latency times depending on the path taken as explained in part two of the articles on Cosmos. It doesn’t need to wait for an extended period of time with risk of rollbacks.

Polkadot

Polkadot provides a Hybrid consensus protocol consisting of Block producing protocol, BABE, and then a finality gadget called GRANDPA that works to agree on a chain, out of many possible forks, by following some simpler fork choice rule. Rather than voting on every block, instead it reaches agreements on chains. As soon as more than 2/3 of validators attest to a chain containing a certain block, all blocks leading up to that one are finalized at once.
If an invalid block is detected after it has been finalised then the relay chain would need to be reverted along with every parachain. This is particularly important when connecting to external blockchains as those don’t share the state of the relay chain and thus can’t be rolled back. The longer the time period, the more secure the network is, as there is more time for additional checks to be performed and reported but at the expense of finality. Finality is reached within 60 seconds between parachains but for external ecosystems like Ethereum their state obviously can’t be rolled back like a parachain and so finality will need to be much longer (60 minutes was suggested in the whitepaper) and discussed in more detail in part three

Avalanche

Avalanche consensus achieves finality within 3 seconds, with most happening sub 1 second, immutable and completely irreversible. Any subnet can connect directly to another without having to go through multiple hops and any VM can talk to another VM within the same subnet as well as external subnets. It doesn’t need to wait for an extended period of time with risk of rollbacks.

Results

With regards to performance far too much emphasis is just put on tps as a metric, the other equally important metric, if not more important with regards to finance is latency. Throughput measures the amount of data at any given time that it can handle whereas latency is the amount of time it takes to perform an action. It’s pointless saying you can process more transactions per second than VISA when it takes 60 seconds for a transaction to complete. Low latency also greatly increases general usability and customer satisfaction, nowadays everyone expects card payments, online payments to happen instantly. Avalanche achieves the best results scoring ✅✅✅, Cosmos with comes in second with 6 second finality ✅✅ and Polkadot with 60 second finality (which may be 60 minutes for external blockchains) scores ✅
https://preview.redd.it/kzup5x42wpq51.png?width=1000&format=png&auto=webp&s=320eb4c25dc4fc0f443a7a2f7ff09567871648cd

Shared Security

Cosmos

Every Zone and Hub in Cosmos has their own validator set and different trust assumptions. Cosmos are researching a shared security model where a Hub can validate the state of connected zones for a fee but not released yet. Once available this will make shared security optional rather than mandatory.

Polkadot

Shared Security is mandatory with Polkadot which uses a Shared State infrastructure between the Relay Chain and all of the connected parachains. If the Relay Chain must revert for any reason, then all of the parachains would also revert. Every parachain makes the same trust assumptions, and as such the relay chain validates state transition and enables seamless interoperability between them. In return for this benefit, they have to purchase DOT and win an auction for one of the available parachain slots.
However, parachains can’t just rely on the relay chain for their security, they will also need to implement censorship resistance measures and utilise proof of work / proof of stake for each parachain as well as discussed in part three, thus parachains can’t just rely on the security of the relay chain, they need to ensure sybil resistance mechanisms using POW and POS are implemented on the parachain as well.

Avalanche

A subnet in Avalanche consists of a dynamic set of validators working together to achieve consensus on the state of a set of many blockchains where complex rulesets can be configured to meet regulatory compliance. So unlike in Cosmos where each zone / hub has their own validators, A subnet can validate a single or many virtual machines / blockchains with a single validator set. Shared security is optional

Results

Shared security is mandatory in polkadot and a key design decision in its infrastructure. The relay chain validates the state transition of all connected parachains and thus scores ✅✅✅. Subnets in Avalanche can validate state of either a single or many virtual machines. Each subnet can have their own token and shares a validator set, where complex rulesets can be configured to meet regulatory compliance. It scores ✅ ✅. Every Zone and Hub in cosmos has their own validator set / token but research is underway to have the hub validate the state transition of connected zones, but as this is still early in the research phase scores ✅ for now.
https://preview.redd.it/pbgyk3o3wpq51.png?width=1000&format=png&auto=webp&s=61c18e12932a250f5633c40633810d0f64520575

Current Adoption

Cosmos

The Cosmos project started in 2016 with an ICO held in April 2017. There are currently around 50 projects building on the Cosmos SDK with a full list can be seen here and filtering for Cosmos SDK . Not all of the projects will necessarily connect using native cosmos sdk and IBC and some have forked parts of the Cosmos SDK and utilise the tendermint consensus such as Binance Chain but have said they will connect in the future.

Polkadot

The Polkadot project started in 2016 with an ICO held in October 2017. There are currently around 70 projects building on Substrate and a full list can be seen here and filtering for Substrate Based. Like with Cosmos not all projects built using substrate will necessarily connect to Polkadot and parachains or parathreads aren’t currently implemented in either the Live or Test network (Kusama) as of the time of this writing.

Avalanche

Avalanche in comparison started much later with Ava Labs being founded in 2018. Avalanche held it’s ICO in July 2020. Due to lot shorter time it has been in development, the number of projects confirmed are smaller with around 14 projects currently building on Avalanche. Due to the customisability of the platform though, many virtual machines can be used within a subnet making the process incredibly easy to port projects over. As an example, it will launch with the Ethereum Virtual Machine which enables byte for byte compatibility and all the tooling like Metamask, Truffle etc. will work, so projects can easily move over to benefit from the performance, decentralisation and low gas fees offered. In the future Cosmos and Substrate virtual machines could be implemented on Avalanche.

Results

Whilst it’s still early for all 3 projects (and the entire blockchain space as a whole), there is currently more projects confirmed to be building on Cosmos and Polkadot, mostly due to their longer time in development. Whilst Cosmos has fewer projects, zones are implemented compared to Polkadot which doesn’t currently have parachains. IBC to connect zones and hubs together is due to launch Q2 2021, thus both score ✅✅✅. Avalanche has been in development for a lot shorter time period, but is launching with an impressive feature set right from the start with ability to create subnets, VMs, assets, NFTs, permissioned and permissionless blockchains, cross chain atomic swaps within a subnet, smart contracts, bridge to Ethereum etc. Applications can easily port over from other platforms and use all the existing tooling such as Metamask / Truffle etc but benefit from the performance, decentralisation and low gas fees offered. Currently though just based on the number of projects in comparison it scores ✅.
https://preview.redd.it/4zpi6s85wpq51.png?width=1000&format=png&auto=webp&s=e91ade1a86a5d50f4976f3b23a46e9287b08e373

Enterprise Adoption

Cosmos

Cosmos enables permissioned and permissionless zones which can connect to each other with the ability to have full control over who validates the blockchain. For permissionless zones each zone / hub can have their own token and they are in control who validates.

Polkadot

With polkadot the state transition is performed by a small randomly selected assigned group of validators from the relay chain plus with the possibility that state is rolled back if an invalid transaction of any of the other parachains is found. This may pose a problem for enterprises that need complete control over who performs validation for regulatory reasons. In addition due to the limited number of parachain slots available Enterprises would have to acquire and lock up large amounts of a highly volatile asset (DOT) and have the possibility that they are outbid in future auctions and find they no longer can have their parachain validated and parathreads don’t provide the guaranteed performance requirements for the application to function.

Avalanche

Avalanche enables permissioned and permissionless subnets and complex rulesets can be configured to meet regulatory compliance. For example a subnet can be created where its mandatory that all validators are from a certain legal jurisdiction, or they hold a specific license and regulated by the SEC etc. Subnets are also able to scale to tens of thousands of validators, and even potentially millions of nodes, all participating in consensus so every enterprise can run their own node rather than only a small amount. Enterprises don’t have to hold large amounts of a highly volatile asset, but instead pay a fee in AVAX for the creation of the subnets and blockchains which is burnt.

Results

Avalanche provides the customisability to run private permissioned blockchains as well as permissionless where the enterprise is in control over who validates the blockchain, with the ability to use complex rulesets to meet regulatory compliance, thus scores ✅✅✅. Cosmos is also able to run permissioned and permissionless zones / hubs so enterprises have full control over who validates a blockchain and scores ✅✅. Polkadot requires locking up large amounts of a highly volatile asset with the possibility of being outbid by competitors and being unable to run the application if the guaranteed performance is required and having to migrate away. The relay chain validates the state transition and can roll back the parachain should an invalid block be detected on another parachain, thus scores ✅.
https://preview.redd.it/li5jy6u6wpq51.png?width=1000&format=png&auto=webp&s=e2a95f1f88e5efbcf9e23c789ae0f002c8eb73fc

Interoperability

Cosmos

Cosmos will connect Hubs and Zones together through its IBC protocol (due to release in Q1 2020). Connecting to blockchains outside of the Cosmos ecosystem would either require the connected blockchain to fork their code to implement IBC or more likely a custom “Peg Zone” will be created specific to work with a particular blockchain it’s trying to bridge to such as Ethereum etc. Each Zone and Hub has different trust levels and connectivity between 2 zones can have different trust depending on which path it takes (this is discussed more in this article). Finality time is low at 6 seconds, but depending on the number of hops, this can increase significantly.

Polkadot

Polkadot’s shared state means each parachain that connects shares the same trust assumptions, of the relay chain validators and that if one blockchain needs to be reverted, all of them will need to be reverted. Interoperability is enabled between parachains through Cross-Chain Message Passing (XCMP) protocol and is also possible to connect to other systems through bridges, which are specifically designed parachains or parathreads that each are custom made to interact with another ecosystem such as Ethereum and Bitcoin. Finality time between parachains is around 60 seconds, but longer will be needed (initial figures of 60 minutes in the whitepaper) for connecting to external blockchains. Thus limiting the appeal of connecting two external ecosystems together through Polkadot. Polkadot is also limited in the number of Parachain slots available, thus limiting the amount of blockchains that can be bridged. Parathreads could be used for lower performance bridges, but the speed of future blockchains is only going to increase.

Avalanche

A subnet can validate multiple virtual machines / blockchains and all blockchains within a subnet share the same trust assumptions / validator set, enabling cross chain interoperability. Interoperability is also possible between any other subnet, with the hope Avalanche will consist of thousands of subnets. Each subnet may have a different trust level, but as the primary network consists of all validators then this can be used as a source of trust if required. As Avalanche supports many virtual machines, bridges to other ecosystems are created by running the connected virtual machine. There will be an Ethereum bridge using the EVM shortly after mainnet. Finality time is much faster at sub 3 seconds (with most happening under 1 second) with no chance of rolling back so more appealing when connecting to external blockchains.

Results

All 3 systems are able to perform interoperability within their ecosystem and transfer assets as well as data, as well as use bridges to connect to external blockchains. Cosmos has different trust levels between its zones and hubs and can create issues depending on which path it takes and additional latency added. Polkadot provides the same trust assumptions for all connected parachains but has long finality and limited number of parachain slots available. Avalanche provides the same trust assumptions for all blockchains within a subnet, and different trust levels between subnets. However due to the primary network consisting of all validators it can be used for trust. Avalanche also has a much faster finality time with no limitation on the number of blockchains / subnets / bridges that can be created. Overall all three blockchains excel with interoperability within their ecosystem and each score ✅✅.
https://preview.redd.it/ai0bkbq8wpq51.png?width=1000&format=png&auto=webp&s=3e85ee6a3c4670f388ccea00b0c906c3fb51e415

Tokenomics

Cosmos

The ATOM token is the native token for the Cosmos Hub. It is commonly mistaken by people that think it’s the token used throughout the cosmos ecosystem, whereas it’s just used for one of many hubs in Cosmos, each with their own token. Currently ATOM has little utility as IBC isn’t released and has no connections to other zones / hubs. Once IBC is released zones may prefer to connect to a different hub instead and so ATOM is not used. ATOM isn’t a fixed capped supply token and supply will continuously increase with a yearly inflation of around 10% depending on the % staked. The current market cap for ATOM as of the time of this writing is $1 Billion with 203 million circulating supply. Rewards can be earnt through staking to offset the dilution caused by inflation. Delegators can also get slashed and lose a portion of their ATOM should the validator misbehave.

Polkadot

Polkadot’s native token is DOT and it’s used to secure the Relay Chain. Each parachain needs to acquire sufficient DOT to win an auction on an available parachain lease period of up to 24 months at a time. Parathreads have a fixed fee for registration that would realistically be much lower than the cost of acquiring a parachain slot and compete with other parathreads in a per-block auction to have their transactions included in the next relay chain block. DOT isn’t a fixed capped supply token and supply will continuously increase with a yearly inflation of around 10% depending on the % staked. The current market cap for DOT as of the time of this writing is $4.4 Billion with 852 million circulating supply. Delegators can also get slashed and lose their DOT (potentially 100% of their DOT for serious attacks) should the validator misbehave.

Avalanche

AVAX is the native token for the primary network in Avalanche. Every validator of any subnet also has to validate the primary network and stake a minimum of 2000 AVAX. There is no limit to the number of validators like other consensus methods then this can cater for tens of thousands even potentially millions of validators. As every validator validates the primary network, this can be a source of trust for interoperability between subnets as well as connecting to other ecosystems, thus increasing amount of transaction fees of AVAX. There is no slashing in Avalanche, so there is no risk to lose your AVAX when selecting a validator, instead rewards earnt for staking can be slashed should the validator misbehave. Because Avalanche doesn’t have direct slashing, it is technically possible for someone to both stake AND deliver tokens for something like a flash loan, under the invariant that all tokens that are staked are returned, thus being able to make profit with staked tokens outside of staking itself.
There will also be a separate subnet for Athereum which is a ‘spoon,’ or friendly fork, of Ethereum, which benefits from the Avalanche consensus protocol and applications in the Ethereum ecosystem. It’s native token ATH will be airdropped to ETH holders as well as potentially AVAX holders as well. This can be done for other blockchains as well.
Transaction fees on the primary network for all 3 of the blockchains as well as subscription fees for creating a subnet and blockchain are paid in AVAX and are burnt, creating deflationary pressure. AVAX is a fixed capped supply of 720 million tokens, creating scarcity rather than an unlimited supply which continuously increase of tokens at a compounded rate each year like others. Initially there will be 360 tokens minted at Mainnet with vesting periods between 1 and 10 years, with tokens gradually unlocking each quarter. The Circulating supply is 24.5 million AVAX with tokens gradually released each quater. The current market cap of AVAX is around $100 million.

Results

Avalanche’s AVAX with its fixed capped supply, deflationary pressure, very strong utility, potential to receive air drops and low market cap, means it scores ✅✅✅. Polkadot’s DOT also has very strong utility with the need for auctions to acquire parachain slots, but has no deflationary mechanisms, no fixed capped supply and already valued at $3.8 billion, therefore scores ✅✅. Cosmos’s ATOM token is only for the Cosmos Hub, of which there will be many hubs in the ecosystem and has very little utility currently. (this may improve once IBC is released and if Cosmos hub actually becomes the hub that people want to connect to and not something like Binance instead. There is no fixed capped supply and currently valued at $1.1 Billion, so scores ✅.
https://preview.redd.it/mels7myawpq51.png?width=1000&format=png&auto=webp&s=df9782e2c0a4c26b61e462746256bdf83b1fb906
All three are excellent projects and have similarities as well as many differences. Just to reiterate this article is not intended to be an extensive in-depth list, but rather an overview based on some of the criteria that I feel are most important. For a more in-depth view I recommend reading the articles for each of the projects linked above and coming to your own conclusions, you may have different criteria which is important to you, and score them differently. There won’t be one platform to rule them all however, with some uses cases better suited to one platform over another, and it’s not a zero-sum game. Blockchain is going to completely revolutionize industries and the Internet itself. The more projects researching and delivering breakthrough technology the better, each learning from each other and pushing each other to reach that goal earlier. The current market is a tiny speck of what’s in store in terms of value and adoption and it’s going to be exciting to watch it unfold.
https://preview.redd.it/dbb99egcwpq51.png?width=1388&format=png&auto=webp&s=aeb03127dc0dc74d0507328e899db1c7d7fc2879
For more information see the articles below (each with additional sources at the bottom of their articles)
Avalanche, a Revolutionary Consensus Engine and Platform. A Game Changer for Blockchain
Avalanche Consensus, The Biggest Breakthrough since Nakamoto
Cosmos — An Early In-Depth Analysis — Part One
Cosmos — An Early In-Depth Analysis — Part Two
Cosmos Hub ATOM Token and the commonly misunderstood staking tokens — Part Three
Polkadot — An Early In-Depth Analysis — Part One — Overview and Benefits
Polkadot — An Early In-Depth Analysis — Part Two — How Consensus Works
Polkadot — An Early In-Depth Analysis — Part Three — Limitations and Issues
submitted by xSeq22x to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

CC Fullz Shop - Verified Haxker - EZ Cashout



Are you stuck looking for cc fullz? purchase yours from a verified hacker usually.. i have over 1000+ cards available I tried some UK cards as well successfully. If you need it
my telegram is u/unknownhaxker
Feel free to join my telegram channel for FULLZ https://t.me/joinchat/AAAAAFk46fVyNEsaCArYjg
Please don’t go to me unless you’re experienced in clapping / carding
Ignore tags
Free bins cvv cvv2 fullz fullz cc free how to get fullz free bin lookup credit card numbers fraudbible fraudbible2020 fraud bible 2020 teejayx6 teejaymethod cashapp flipping Venmo PayPal carding cashapp dropping money flips easy money how to scam how to be a scammer yeezy method stockx method sell cc fresh, cc good, paypal account, bank login, bank transfer,track 1/2 pin, bank transfer, wu transfer sell bank login uk, online bank account hacking software, sell bank login, sell bank transfer, hacking bank account, hacking bank online, hacker bank transfer, hacker bank account sell track us, sell track us with pin, sell track track, sell track forum, sell track with pin, sell track track1 track2 sell track track 1/2 china, sell track china with pin, sell track dubai, track asian, sell track 101, sell track 201, track 101 pin sell cc au, sell cc au fresh good, sell cc au valid live, sell cc au best balance, sell cc au fullz info, sell cc shopping, cc shop, sell cc fullz sell cc eu, sell cc eu cheap live, sell cc eu fullz info, sell cc eu with bin, sell cc with bin, sell cc pass vbv, sell cc non, sell cc good cheap, sell fresh cc sell cc uk fresh, sell cc uk high balance, cc uk pass vbv, sell cc uk fullz info, sell cc uk, cc for sale, sell cc good live, sell cc valid, store cc CVV 2020 : 2020 ATM Dumps Card ,buy dumps pin ,buy dumps 2020 with pin ,Buy Dumps with PIN USA ,carding amazon ,carding tutorial ,cc dumps, sites CCV ,Shop cvv dumps ,dumps Dumps Card ATM ,dumps cvv ,dumps online ,dumps shop ,Dumps Track 1+2(101 ,dumps track with pin ,dumps usa with pin ,dumps with pin ,New Updates Dumps, Sale CVV Good Sell CVV check bin ,Sell CVV Fullz info ,Sell CVV Good ,Sell CVV Uk full ,Sell CVV USA Fresh ,Sell CVV with Dob, Sell Dumps Good ,Sell dumps Pin USA ,Sell Dumps Track 1+2, Sell Dumps Track 101 with PIN, Sell Dumps Track with Pin ,Sell Dumps USA Good ,Sell Dumps with Pin, Sell Dumps with Pin 101, Sell Dumps with PIN Track 1 Track 2 ,Sell Dumps with PIN Track 1 Track 2 Pin ,dumps shop , sell dumps , dumps with pin , sell dumps with pin , sell dumps shop , buy dumps shop , dumps with pin store , buy dumps ,sell track 1&2 + pin , sell track , buy track 1&2 + pin 2020 , sell shop , buy shop , seller dumps , verify dumps shop , valid dumps shop , valid shop ,valid dumps 2020 , good dumps 2020 , good dumps shop , good shop ,sell track 1 , sell track 2 , dumps shop eu , dumps shop chinese , sell dumps us , sell dumps chinese , sell atm skimmer , sell strype card , sell msr ,sell Plastic card ,sell dumps , dumpsshop
carder?? credit card dumps, cc dumps, fresh dumps, dumps with pin, credit card dumps for sale, sell dumps, sell dumps, shop dumps, shop dumps ,buy dumps, buy dumps, good dumps, sell dumps good, sell dumps vaild, track 1&2, dumps shop online, dumps with pin, buy best dumps, dump store, dumps shop online, best dumps shop, dumps buy, fresh cc dumps, good dumps, sell dumps good, sell dumps shop, dumps with pin 2017, sell dumps track 1/2, credit card dumps
selling,Cvv2,fullz,Dumps+Track 1\2+acc,Paypal+contact me Email: [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])
Yahoo ID: shoppywilliams Gmail : shoppywilliams u/gmail.com Google talk : shoppywilliams Outlook: shoppywilliams u/outlook.com
MAIL : I'm a hacker good and seller cvv good so now i have more cc for sale
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!WELLCOME TO ALL CUSTOMER!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
2014 !
Contact
Email: [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])
Yahoo ID: shoppywilliams
Gmail : shoppywilliams u/gmail.com
Google talk : shoppywilliams
Outlook: shoppywilliams u/outlook.com
==>> I'M A BIG HACKER REALLY IN ALL FORUM ===> I'm Seller for: CC, CVV US,UK,CA, EURO,AU, Italian,Japan,France,...all cc !
CC fullz info, CC DOB....for All !
- Us ( vis,mas ) = 5$/1cvv
- Us ( dis,amex ) = 7$/1cvv
- Uk ( vis,mas ) = 10$/1cvv
- Uk ( amex,dis) = 15$/1cvv
- Au = 15$/1cvv
- Ca = 15$/1cvv
- Eu = 20$/1cvv
- Itali = 20$/1cvv
- Spain = 20$/1cvv
- Denmark = 25$/1cvv
- Sweden = 20$/1cvv
- France = 15$/1
- Germany = 15$/1
- Ireland = 15$/1
- New zeland = 15$/1
- Switherland = 15$/1
- Slovakia = 15$/1
- Middle East = 15$/1cvv
- Asia = 15$/1cvv
- Uk with bin = 20$
- Uk with dob = 25$
- Uk with bin + dob = 30$
- Us full = 25$/1cvv
- Uk full = 35$/1cvv
- Eu full = 40$/1cvv
- And All CC - CVV Country
--------------------
CC fullz info, CC DOBDomain hosting.
PRICE LIST ALL CVV CVV2.
1cc US (visa) : 5$
1cc US(master) : 6$
1cc US(amex/discover):8$
1cc US with bin : 9$
1cc US fullz : 18$
1cc uk random : 10$
1cc uk with dob : 20$
1cc uk with bin : 10$
1cc uk bin dob : 25$
1cc uk fullz : 30$
1cc eu(visa /master) : 15$
1cc eu(Amex/Discover): 15$
1cc ca random : 6$
1cc ca bin : 12$
1cc ca fulls : 20$
1cc au random : 7$
1cc france : 15$
1cc france with dob : 20$
1cc germany : 15$
1cc germany with dob : 25$
1cc italy : 20$
1cc italy with dob : 40$
1cc japan : 15$
1cc japan with dob : 25$
1cc belgium : 12$
1cc denmark : 12$
1cc spain : 15$
Sample : Fresh FULZ INDIA
Number: 557664432400xxxx
EXP: 0316
CVV: 839
Name: Pankaj Kumar Neo
Country: INDIA
ZIP: 221010
City: Varanasi
Street: Flat no.15 siddarth
Phone: 054222227xx
DOB: 03/10/1981
SSN: none
MMN: Padama Devi Neot
Vbv1: 839
Vbv2: 1073
--------------------
Sample : Fresh UK FULZ
Account Open In: LD
Online ID: rgunn1x
ATM or Check Card PIN: 001755
Passcode: eg15
----------Credit/Debit Card and Other Accounts Details--------
CC Number: 4917541519978xxx
Exp Date: 05/2016
Cvv: 54x
CC PinNumber: eg1x
Account Number: 0520016xx
Routing Number: 365xxx
----------Credit/Debit Card ----------
Full Name: Ted Maclean
Address Line 1: 33 dorset house
Address Line 2: 4 kettering road
City: london
Zipcode: en3 6xa
Phone Number:+4470358425
E-mail: rg.gunn
----------Identification--------------
DOB: 04-04-1953
MMN: pinkney
Driver's Liecence No: g50076xxxxxx
-----SiteKeyChallengec Questions---
--------------------------
Format is:
Card Number | Exp. Date | CVV/CVV2 | First Name | Last Name | Street
City | State | Zip Code | Country | Phone | Type Of Card | Bank Name
All our cc are checked before sending.
We guarantee that our cc are good with good balances!
- RULE 1: I never sell the same CC, CVV to more than a person.
- RULE 2: I don't share CC, CVV for test free.
- RULE 3: All my CC, CVV always are fresh and live.
- RULE 4: All my CC, CVVs are checked.
*USA:101
MasterCard Standart, Visa Classic - $40
Visa Gold|Platinum|Corporate|Signature|Business ? $40
American Express - $30 ( WITHOUT SID )
Discover - $50
*CANADA:101 201
MasterCard, Visa Classic - $50
Visa Gold|Platinum|Corporate|Signature|Business ? $50
*EU:101 201
MasterCard, Visa Classic - $90
Visa Gold|Platinum|Corporate|Signature|Business ? $130
*Other countries:101 201MasterCard| Visa Classic - $70
Visa Gold|Platinum|Corporate|Signature|Business ? $100
*ASIA/AUSTRALIA/Exotic:101 , 201 , 121 and others
MasterCard| Visa Classic - $50
Visa Gold|Platinum|Corporate|Signature|Business ? $70
MSR PRICE :
MSR505 / MSR2000 : $ 549
MSR505 / MSR300* : $ 499
MSR505 / TA-48 : $ 639
MSR206 / MSR3000 : $ 729
MSR206 / MSR300 : $ 549
MSR206 2x MSR400 : $ 900
MSR206 2x MSR500m (Mini123) : $ 875
MSR206 2x TA-32 : $ 990
MSR206 2x CRM42 : $ 869
MSR206 2xCRM41 : $ 929
Uk CVV $20 for one Amex/Disc FULLZ INFO
Uk CVV $20 for one MasteVisa FULLZ INFO
Uk with dob $25 for one cw FULLZ INFO
EU CVV $20 for one Disc/Amex FULLZ INFO
EU CVV $25 with DOB for one MasteVisa FULLZ INFO
ARAB CVV $30 MasteVisa FULLZ INFO
US FULL INFO CC $25 DOB SSN ETCCCCCCCC
MIX CC ONLY
UK CC NORMAL $9 WITH DOB $25 Randon with Bin $1 extra fee
Sample Fresh US FULZ
Full Name : james gilmor
Date of Birth : Aug/28/xxxx
Mother's Maiden Name : gunderman
Social Security Number : 090/42/xxxx
Home Phone Number : 516-935-xxxx
Adress Line 1 : 125 cortland ave
Adress Line 2 :
City : hicksville
State : ny
Zip Code : 11801
Contry : United States
Debit or credit card number : 559460000069xxxx
Expiration date : 06 / 15
Card Verification Number : 991x
SecourCode : 748
Card Signature/PIN : 038x
------------------
First Name : Donna
Middle Name : L
Last Name : Buchanax
Spouse Name :
Father Name :
Billing Address : 9970C W. Royal Oak Rd.
City : Sun City
State : AZ
Zip Code : 85351
Country : US
Phone Number : 623-974-9422
Credit Card Information :
*********
Card Type : Debit
Credit Card Number : 474488008092xxxx
Exp. Date : 3/March / 2016
Name On Card : Donna L. Buchanan
Cvv2 : 822
Mother Maiden Name : Edwards
Social Security Number : 365420562
Birth Day : 23
Birth Month : 09
Birth Year : 1943
Card Verification Number : 991x
SecourCode : 748
Card Signature/PIN : 038x
Account Information :
*******
AOL ID : [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])
Password : luper123
-------------------------------
======> Prices For Western Union Online -Transfer(Eu,Uk,Asia,Ca,Us,France,Ger,Ita,AU and very easy to cashout
African)
=====>>> do Transfer WU ($ / £ / Euro )
-500$ = 9000$
-300$ = 5000$
-200$ = 3000$
-100$ = 1500$
After Payment 45Min u will get MTCN to cash money
MTCN : 386-919-3122 / 112-378-6613 / 075-973-8623 / .........!!!!
=====>>> Acc Paypal
And have more Bank account login with more country , If u real want to buy and make bussiness with me let's
---With Paypal Veritified-----
- Paypal Veritified with balance 1000$ = 100$
- Paypal Veritified with balance 3000$ = 200$
- Paypal Veritified with balance 5000$ = 350$
- Paypal Veritified with balance 8000$ = 500$
I only have some balance like as , so someone don't ask me about low balance or high balance about paypal
-------------------------------------------------- --------------------
=====> With Bank and Tracks,Dumps
- Tracks 1&2 US = 55$ per 1
- Tracks 1&2 UK = 70$ per 1
- Tracks 1&2 ca / au = 80$ per 1
- Tracks 1&2 EU = 90$ per 1
Will check with hight balance
Track1=5232556061018719WYATT/ROBERTSON1007101171410000271000000
Track2=5232556061018719=10071011000042400000
pin: 5678 5432,5187 ,5505,and much pin other
=====>>> Ship shop all
Ship iphone : 4g 150$ per 1
Ship iphone : 3gs 100$ per 1
Ship ipad : 150$ per 1
Ship Laptop : Vaio 200$ per 1
Ship Laptop : Dell 150$ per 1
Ship Laptop : HP 100$ per 1
SHIP LAPTOP APPLE = 150$
SHIP LAPTOP HP + DELL = 120$
SHIP LAPTOP TOSHIBA = 80$
SHIP LAPTOP LENOVO = 100$
=====>>> Bank Logins Prices US UK CA AU EU
1 . Balance > 5000 = 200$
2 . Balance > 10000 = 350$
3 . Balance > 15000 = 500$
4 . Balance > 20000 = 650$
5 . Balance > 27000 = 800$
Balance In Chase : 70K To 155K = 160$
Balance In Wachovia : 24K To 80K = 80$
Balance In Boa : 75K To 450K = 300$
Balance In Credit Union : Any Amount = 300$
Balance In Hallifax : ANY AMOUNT = 300$
Balance In Compass : ANY AMOUNT = 300$
Balance In Wellsfargo : ANY AMOUNT = 300$
Balance In Barclays : 80K To 100K = 400$
Balance In Abbey : 82K = 700$
Balance in Hsbc : 50K = 350$
---------Contact -----------
+++++++++++Skype ID : cvvcharlie2014
- And have more Bank account login with more country
- If u real want to buy and make bussiness with me let's contact me now
- dont trust dont talk more
- you send money => i send Cvv2 good
- no test free
- u can buy 1 test,if good u can buy more
- if not good ,i will change for u
- i very hate do spam or rip and i don't want who spam me
- all my cvv are tested before sell, that's sure
- i accept PM (Perfect money) or WU but i only accept WU > 100
- I was so happy to see you actually make more money from the business with me
thank you all ... When you believe I and work with me
- contact me ...if you need me
I ACCEPT PAYMENT ONLY : PERFECT MONEY or WESTERN UNION or BITCOIN or EGOPAY
MY CONTACT INFOS..:
Email: [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])
Yahoo ID: shoppywilliams
Gmail : shoppywilliams u/gmail.com
Google talk : shoppywilliams
Outlook: shoppywilliams u/outlook.com
NO TEST
NO DEMO
NO FREE FRESH OR DEAD CARD
CONTACT ME ONLY WHEN U READY TO BUY OR READY FOR GOOD DEAL
-------- SELL GOOD STUFFS BOOK ALL TICKETS NOW --------
submitted by unknownhaxkerr to blackhatting [link] [comments]

[ CryptoCurrency ] Comparison between Avalanche, Cosmos and Polkadot

[ 🔴 DELETED 🔴 ] Topic originally posted in CryptoCurrency by xSeq22x [link]
A frequent question I see being asked is how Cosmos, Polkadot and Avalanche compare? Whilst there are similarities there are also a lot of differences. This article is not intended to be an extensive in-depth list, but rather an overview based on some of the criteria that I feel are most important.
For better formatting see https://medium.com/ava-hub/comparison-between-avalanche-cosmos-and-polkadot-a2a98f46c03b
https://preview.redd.it/lg16iwk2dhq51.png?width=428&format=png&auto=webp&s=6c899ee69800dd6c5e2900d8fa83de7a43c57086

Overview

Cosmos

Cosmos is a heterogeneous network of many independent parallel blockchains, each powered by classical BFT consensus algorithms like Tendermint. Developers can easily build custom application specific blockchains, called Zones, through the Cosmos SDK framework. These Zones connect to Hubs, which are specifically designed to connect zones together.
The vision of Cosmos is to have thousands of Zones and Hubs that are Interoperable through the Inter-Blockchain Communication Protocol (IBC). Cosmos can also connect to other systems through peg zones, which are specifically designed zones that each are custom made to interact with another ecosystem such as Ethereum and Bitcoin. Cosmos does not use Sharding with each Zone and Hub being sovereign with their own validator set.
For a more in-depth look at Cosmos and provide more reference to points made in this article, please see my three part series — Part One, Part Two, Part Three
https://youtu.be/Eb8xkDi_PUg

Polkadot

Polkadot is a heterogeneous blockchain protocol that connects multiple specialised blockchains into one unified network. It achieves scalability through a sharding infrastructure with multiple blockchains running in parallel, called parachains, that connect to a central chain called the Relay Chain. Developers can easily build custom application specific parachains through the Substrate development framework.
The relay chain validates the state transition of connected parachains, providing shared state across the entire ecosystem. If the Relay Chain must revert for any reason, then all of the parachains would also revert. This is to ensure that the validity of the entire system can persist, and no individual part is corruptible. The shared state makes it so that the trust assumptions when using parachains are only those of the Relay Chain validator set, and no other. Interoperability is enabled between parachains through Cross-Chain Message Passing (XCMP) protocol and is also possible to connect to other systems through bridges, which are specifically designed parachains or parathreads that each are custom made to interact with another ecosystem such as Ethereum and Bitcoin. The hope is to have 100 parachains connect to the relay chain.
For a more in-depth look at Polkadot and provide more reference to points made in this article, please see my three part series — Part One, Part Two, Part Three
https://youtu.be/_-k0xkooSlA

Avalanche

Avalanche is a platform of platforms, ultimately consisting of thousands of subnets to form a heterogeneous interoperable network of many blockchains, that takes advantage of the revolutionary Avalanche Consensus protocols to provide a secure, globally distributed, interoperable and trustless framework offering unprecedented decentralisation whilst being able to comply with regulatory requirements.
Avalanche allows anyone to create their own tailor-made application specific blockchains, supporting multiple custom virtual machines such as EVM and WASM and written in popular languages like Go (with others coming in the future) rather than lightly used, poorly-understood languages like Solidity. This virtual machine can then be deployed on a custom blockchain network, called a subnet, which consist of a dynamic set of validators working together to achieve consensus on the state of a set of many blockchains where complex rulesets can be configured to meet regulatory compliance.
Avalanche was built with serving financial markets in mind. It has native support for easily creating and trading digital smart assets with complex custom rule sets that define how the asset is handled and traded to ensure regulatory compliance can be met. Interoperability is enabled between blockchains within a subnet as well as between subnets. Like Cosmos and Polkadot, Avalanche is also able to connect to other systems through bridges, through custom virtual machines made to interact with another ecosystem such as Ethereum and Bitcoin.
For a more in-depth look at Avalanche and provide more reference to points made in this article, please see here and here
https://youtu.be/mWBzFmzzBAg

Comparison between Cosmos, Polkadot and Avalanche

A frequent question I see being asked is how Cosmos, Polkadot and Avalanche compare? Whilst there are similarities there are also a lot of differences. This article is not intended to be an extensive in-depth list, but rather an overview based on some of the criteria that I feel are most important. For a more in-depth view I recommend reading the articles for each of the projects linked above and coming to your own conclusions. I want to stress that it’s not a case of one platform being the killer of all other platforms, far from it. There won’t be one platform to rule them all, and too often the tribalism has plagued this space. Blockchains are going to completely revolutionise most industries and have a profound effect on the world we know today. It’s still very early in this space with most adoption limited to speculation and trading mainly due to the limitations of Blockchain and current iteration of Ethereum, which all three of these platforms hope to address. For those who just want a quick summary see the image at the bottom of the article. With that said let’s have a look

Scalability

Cosmos

Each Zone and Hub in Cosmos is capable of up to around 1000 transactions per second with bandwidth being the bottleneck in consensus. Cosmos aims to have thousands of Zones and Hubs all connected through IBC. There is no limit on the number of Zones / Hubs that can be created

Polkadot

Parachains in Polkadot are also capable of up to around 1500 transactions per second. A portion of the parachain slots on the Relay Chain will be designated as part of the parathread pool, the performance of a parachain is split between many parathreads offering lower performance and compete amongst themselves in a per-block auction to have their transactions included in the next relay chain block. The number of parachains is limited by the number of validators on the relay chain, they hope to be able to achieve 100 parachains.

Avalanche

Avalanche is capable of around 4500 transactions per second per subnet, this is based on modest hardware requirements to ensure maximum decentralisation of just 2 CPU cores and 4 GB of Memory and with a validator size of over 2,000 nodes. Performance is CPU-bound and if higher performance is required then more specialised subnets can be created with higher minimum requirements to be able to achieve 10,000 tps+ in a subnet. Avalanche aims to have thousands of subnets (each with multiple virtual machines / blockchains) all interoperable with each other. There is no limit on the number of Subnets that can be created.

Results

All three platforms offer vastly superior performance to the likes of Bitcoin and Ethereum 1.0. Avalanche with its higher transactions per second, no limit on the number of subnets / blockchains that can be created and the consensus can scale to potentially millions of validators all participating in consensus scores ✅✅✅. Polkadot claims to offer more tps than cosmos, but is limited to the number of parachains (around 100) whereas with Cosmos there is no limit on the number of hubs / zones that can be created. Cosmos is limited to a fairly small validator size of around 200 before performance degrades whereas Polkadot hopes to be able to reach 1000 validators in the relay chain (albeit only a small number of validators are assigned to each parachain). Thus Cosmos and Polkadot scores ✅✅
https://preview.redd.it/ththwq5qdhq51.png?width=1000&format=png&auto=webp&s=92f75152c90d984911db88ed174ebf3a147ca70d

Decentralisation

Cosmos

Tendermint consensus is limited to around 200 validators before performance starts to degrade. Whilst there is the Cosmos Hub it is one of many hubs in the network and there is no central hub or limit on the number of zones / hubs that can be created.

Polkadot

Polkadot has 1000 validators in the relay chain and these are split up into a small number that validate each parachain (minimum of 14). The relay chain is a central point of failure as all parachains connect to it and the number of parachains is limited depending on the number of validators (they hope to achieve 100 parachains). Due to the limited number of parachain slots available, significant sums of DOT will need to be purchased to win an auction to lease the slot for up to 24 months at a time. Thus likely to lead to only those with enough funds to secure a parachain slot. Parathreads are however an alternative for those that require less and more varied performance for those that can’t secure a parachain slot.

Avalanche

Avalanche consensus scan scale to tens of thousands of validators, even potentially millions of validators all participating in consensus through repeated sub-sampling. The more validators, the faster the network becomes as the load is split between them. There are modest hardware requirements so anyone can run a node and there is no limit on the number of subnets / virtual machines that can be created.

Results

Avalanche offers unparalleled decentralisation using its revolutionary consensus protocols that can scale to millions of validators all participating in consensus at the same time. There is no limit to the number of subnets and virtual machines that can be created, and they can be created by anyone for a small fee, it scores ✅✅✅. Cosmos is limited to 200 validators but no limit on the number of zones / hubs that can be created, which anyone can create and scores ✅✅. Polkadot hopes to accommodate 1000 validators in the relay chain (albeit these are split amongst each of the parachains). The number of parachains is limited and maybe cost prohibitive for many and the relay chain is a ultimately a single point of failure. Whilst definitely not saying it’s centralised and it is more decentralised than many others, just in comparison between the three, it scores ✅
https://preview.redd.it/lv2h7g9sdhq51.png?width=1000&format=png&auto=webp&s=56eada6e8c72dbb4406d7c5377ad15608bcc730e

Latency

Cosmos

Tendermint consensus used in Cosmos reaches finality within 6 seconds. Cosmos consists of many Zones and Hubs that connect to each other. Communication between 2 zones could pass through many hubs along the way, thus also can contribute to latency times depending on the path taken as explained in part two of the articles on Cosmos. It doesn’t need to wait for an extended period of time with risk of rollbacks.

Polkadot

Polkadot provides a Hybrid consensus protocol consisting of Block producing protocol, BABE, and then a finality gadget called GRANDPA that works to agree on a chain, out of many possible forks, by following some simpler fork choice rule. Rather than voting on every block, instead it reaches agreements on chains. As soon as more than 2/3 of validators attest to a chain containing a certain block, all blocks leading up to that one are finalized at once.
If an invalid block is detected after it has been finalised then the relay chain would need to be reverted along with every parachain. This is particularly important when connecting to external blockchains as those don’t share the state of the relay chain and thus can’t be rolled back. The longer the time period, the more secure the network is, as there is more time for additional checks to be performed and reported but at the expense of finality. Finality is reached within 60 seconds between parachains but for external ecosystems like Ethereum their state obviously can’t be rolled back like a parachain and so finality will need to be much longer (60 minutes was suggested in the whitepaper) and discussed in more detail in part three

Avalanche

Avalanche consensus achieves finality within 3 seconds, with most happening sub 1 second, immutable and completely irreversible. Any subnet can connect directly to another without having to go through multiple hops and any VM can talk to another VM within the same subnet as well as external subnets. It doesn’t need to wait for an extended period of time with risk of rollbacks.

Results

With regards to performance far too much emphasis is just put on tps as a metric, the other equally important metric, if not more important with regards to finance is latency. Throughput measures the amount of data at any given time that it can handle whereas latency is the amount of time it takes to perform an action. It’s pointless saying you can process more transactions per second than VISA when it takes 60 seconds for a transaction to complete. Low latency also greatly increases general usability and customer satisfaction, nowadays everyone expects card payments, online payments to happen instantly. Avalanche achieves the best results scoring ✅✅✅, Cosmos with comes in second with 6 second finality ✅✅ and Polkadot with 60 second finality (which may be 60 minutes for external blockchains) scores ✅
https://preview.redd.it/qe8e5ltudhq51.png?width=1000&format=png&auto=webp&s=18a2866104590f81a818690337f9121161dda890

Shared Security

Cosmos

Every Zone and Hub in Cosmos has their own validator set and different trust assumptions. Cosmos are researching a shared security model where a Hub can validate the state of connected zones for a fee but not released yet. Once available this will make shared security optional rather than mandatory.

Polkadot

Shared Security is mandatory with Polkadot which uses a Shared State infrastructure between the Relay Chain and all of the connected parachains. If the Relay Chain must revert for any reason, then all of the parachains would also revert. Every parachain makes the same trust assumptions, and as such the relay chain validates state transition and enables seamless interoperability between them. In return for this benefit, they have to purchase DOT and win an auction for one of the available parachain slots.
However, parachains can’t just rely on the relay chain for their security, they will also need to implement censorship resistance measures and utilise proof of work / proof of stake for each parachain as well as discussed in part three, thus parachains can’t just rely on the security of the relay chain, they need to ensure sybil resistance mechanisms using POW and POS are implemented on the parachain as well.

Avalanche

A subnet in Avalanche consists of a dynamic set of validators working together to achieve consensus on the state of a set of many blockchains where complex rulesets can be configured to meet regulatory compliance. So unlike in Cosmos where each zone / hub has their own validators, A subnet can validate a single or many virtual machines / blockchains with a single validator set. Shared security is optional

Results

Shared security is mandatory in polkadot and a key design decision in its infrastructure. The relay chain validates the state transition of all connected parachains and thus scores ✅✅✅. Subnets in Avalanche can validate state of either a single or many virtual machines. Each subnet can have their own token and shares a validator set, where complex rulesets can be configured to meet regulatory compliance. It scores ✅ ✅. Every Zone and Hub in cosmos has their own validator set / token but research is underway to have the hub validate the state transition of connected zones, but as this is still early in the research phase scores ✅ for now.
https://preview.redd.it/0mnvpnzwdhq51.png?width=1000&format=png&auto=webp&s=8927ff2821415817265be75c59261f83851a2791

Current Adoption

Cosmos

The Cosmos project started in 2016 with an ICO held in April 2017. There are currently around 50 projects building on the Cosmos SDK with a full list can be seen here and filtering for Cosmos SDK . Not all of the projects will necessarily connect using native cosmos sdk and IBC and some have forked parts of the Cosmos SDK and utilise the tendermint consensus such as Binance Chain but have said they will connect in the future.

Polkadot

The Polkadot project started in 2016 with an ICO held in October 2017. There are currently around 70 projects building on Substrate and a full list can be seen here and filtering for Substrate Based. Like with Cosmos not all projects built using substrate will necessarily connect to Polkadot and parachains or parathreads aren’t currently implemented in either the Live or Test network (Kusama) as of the time of this writing.

Avalanche

Avalanche in comparison started much later with Ava Labs being founded in 2018. Avalanche held it’s ICO in July 2020. Due to lot shorter time it has been in development, the number of projects confirmed are smaller with around 14 projects currently building on Avalanche. Due to the customisability of the platform though, many virtual machines can be used within a subnet making the process incredibly easy to port projects over. As an example, it will launch with the Ethereum Virtual Machine which enables byte for byte compatibility and all the tooling like Metamask, Truffle etc. will work, so projects can easily move over to benefit from the performance, decentralisation and low gas fees offered. In the future Cosmos and Substrate virtual machines could be implemented on Avalanche.

Results

Whilst it’s still early for all 3 projects (and the entire blockchain space as a whole), there is currently more projects confirmed to be building on Cosmos and Polkadot, mostly due to their longer time in development. Whilst Cosmos has fewer projects, zones are implemented compared to Polkadot which doesn’t currently have parachains. IBC to connect zones and hubs together is due to launch Q2 2021, thus both score ✅✅✅. Avalanche has been in development for a lot shorter time period, but is launching with an impressive feature set right from the start with ability to create subnets, VMs, assets, NFTs, permissioned and permissionless blockchains, cross chain atomic swaps within a subnet, smart contracts, bridge to Ethereum etc. Applications can easily port over from other platforms and use all the existing tooling such as Metamask / Truffle etc but benefit from the performance, decentralisation and low gas fees offered. Currently though just based on the number of projects in comparison it scores ✅.
https://preview.redd.it/rsctxi6zdhq51.png?width=1000&format=png&auto=webp&s=ff762dea3cfc2aaaa3c8fc7b1070d5be6759aac2

Enterprise Adoption

Cosmos

Cosmos enables permissioned and permissionless zones which can connect to each other with the ability to have full control over who validates the blockchain. For permissionless zones each zone / hub can have their own token and they are in control who validates.

Polkadot

With polkadot the state transition is performed by a small randomly selected assigned group of validators from the relay chain plus with the possibility that state is rolled back if an invalid transaction of any of the other parachains is found. This may pose a problem for enterprises that need complete control over who performs validation for regulatory reasons. In addition due to the limited number of parachain slots available Enterprises would have to acquire and lock up large amounts of a highly volatile asset (DOT) and have the possibility that they are outbid in future auctions and find they no longer can have their parachain validated and parathreads don’t provide the guaranteed performance requirements for the application to function.

Avalanche

Avalanche enables permissioned and permissionless subnets and complex rulesets can be configured to meet regulatory compliance. For example a subnet can be created where its mandatory that all validators are from a certain legal jurisdiction, or they hold a specific license and regulated by the SEC etc. Subnets are also able to scale to tens of thousands of validators, and even potentially millions of nodes, all participating in consensus so every enterprise can run their own node rather than only a small amount. Enterprises don’t have to hold large amounts of a highly volatile asset, but instead pay a fee in AVAX for the creation of the subnets and blockchains which is burnt.

Results

Avalanche provides the customisability to run private permissioned blockchains as well as permissionless where the enterprise is in control over who validates the blockchain, with the ability to use complex rulesets to meet regulatory compliance, thus scores ✅✅✅. Cosmos is also able to run permissioned and permissionless zones / hubs so enterprises have full control over who validates a blockchain and scores ✅✅. Polkadot requires locking up large amounts of a highly volatile asset with the possibility of being outbid by competitors and being unable to run the application if the guaranteed performance is required and having to migrate away. The relay chain validates the state transition and can roll back the parachain should an invalid block be detected on another parachain, thus scores ✅.
https://preview.redd.it/7phaylb1ehq51.png?width=1000&format=png&auto=webp&s=d86d2ec49de456403edbaf27009ed0e25609fbff

Interoperability

Cosmos

Cosmos will connect Hubs and Zones together through its IBC protocol (due to release in Q1 2020). Connecting to blockchains outside of the Cosmos ecosystem would either require the connected blockchain to fork their code to implement IBC or more likely a custom “Peg Zone” will be created specific to work with a particular blockchain it’s trying to bridge to such as Ethereum etc. Each Zone and Hub has different trust levels and connectivity between 2 zones can have different trust depending on which path it takes (this is discussed more in this article). Finality time is low at 6 seconds, but depending on the number of hops, this can increase significantly.

Polkadot

Polkadot’s shared state means each parachain that connects shares the same trust assumptions, of the relay chain validators and that if one blockchain needs to be reverted, all of them will need to be reverted. Interoperability is enabled between parachains through Cross-Chain Message Passing (XCMP) protocol and is also possible to connect to other systems through bridges, which are specifically designed parachains or parathreads that each are custom made to interact with another ecosystem such as Ethereum and Bitcoin. Finality time between parachains is around 60 seconds, but longer will be needed (initial figures of 60 minutes in the whitepaper) for connecting to external blockchains. Thus limiting the appeal of connecting two external ecosystems together through Polkadot. Polkadot is also limited in the number of Parachain slots available, thus limiting the amount of blockchains that can be bridged. Parathreads could be used for lower performance bridges, but the speed of future blockchains is only going to increase.

Avalanche

A subnet can validate multiple virtual machines / blockchains and all blockchains within a subnet share the same trust assumptions / validator set, enabling cross chain interoperability. Interoperability is also possible between any other subnet, with the hope Avalanche will consist of thousands of subnets. Each subnet may have a different trust level, but as the primary network consists of all validators then this can be used as a source of trust if required. As Avalanche supports many virtual machines, bridges to other ecosystems are created by running the connected virtual machine. There will be an Ethereum bridge using the EVM shortly after mainnet. Finality time is much faster at sub 3 seconds (with most happening under 1 second) with no chance of rolling back so more appealing when connecting to external blockchains.

Results

All 3 systems are able to perform interoperability within their ecosystem and transfer assets as well as data, as well as use bridges to connect to external blockchains. Cosmos has different trust levels between its zones and hubs and can create issues depending on which path it takes and additional latency added. Polkadot provides the same trust assumptions for all connected parachains but has long finality and limited number of parachain slots available. Avalanche provides the same trust assumptions for all blockchains within a subnet, and different trust levels between subnets. However due to the primary network consisting of all validators it can be used for trust. Avalanche also has a much faster finality time with no limitation on the number of blockchains / subnets / bridges that can be created. Overall all three blockchains excel with interoperability within their ecosystem and each score ✅✅.
https://preview.redd.it/l775gue3ehq51.png?width=1000&format=png&auto=webp&s=b7c4b5802ceb1a9307bd2a8d65f393d1bcb0d7c6

Tokenomics

Cosmos

The ATOM token is the native token for the Cosmos Hub. It is commonly mistaken by people that think it’s the token used throughout the cosmos ecosystem, whereas it’s just used for one of many hubs in Cosmos, each with their own token. Currently ATOM has little utility as IBC isn’t released and has no connections to other zones / hubs. Once IBC is released zones may prefer to connect to a different hub instead and so ATOM is not used. ATOM isn’t a fixed capped supply token and supply will continuously increase with a yearly inflation of around 10% depending on the % staked. The current market cap for ATOM as of the time of this writing is $1 Billion with 203 million circulating supply. Rewards can be earnt through staking to offset the dilution caused by inflation. Delegators can also get slashed and lose a portion of their ATOM should the validator misbehave.

Polkadot

Polkadot’s native token is DOT and it’s used to secure the Relay Chain. Each parachain needs to acquire sufficient DOT to win an auction on an available parachain lease period of up to 24 months at a time. Parathreads have a fixed fee for registration that would realistically be much lower than the cost of acquiring a parachain slot and compete with other parathreads in a per-block auction to have their transactions included in the next relay chain block. DOT isn’t a fixed capped supply token and supply will continuously increase with a yearly inflation of around 10% depending on the % staked. The current market cap for DOT as of the time of this writing is $4.4 Billion with 852 million circulating supply. Delegators can also get slashed and lose their DOT (potentially 100% of their DOT for serious attacks) should the validator misbehave.

Avalanche

AVAX is the native token for the primary network in Avalanche. Every validator of any subnet also has to validate the primary network and stake a minimum of 2000 AVAX. There is no limit to the number of validators like other consensus methods then this can cater for tens of thousands even potentially millions of validators. As every validator validates the primary network, this can be a source of trust for interoperability between subnets as well as connecting to other ecosystems, thus increasing amount of transaction fees of AVAX. There is no slashing in Avalanche, so there is no risk to lose your AVAX when selecting a validator, instead rewards earnt for staking can be slashed should the validator misbehave. Because Avalanche doesn’t have direct slashing, it is technically possible for someone to both stake AND deliver tokens for something like a flash loan, under the invariant that all tokens that are staked are returned, thus being able to make profit with staked tokens outside of staking itself.
There will also be a separate subnet for Athereum which is a ‘spoon,’ or friendly fork, of Ethereum, which benefits from the Avalanche consensus protocol and applications in the Ethereum ecosystem. It’s native token ATH will be airdropped to ETH holders as well as potentially AVAX holders as well. This can be done for other blockchains as well.
Transaction fees on the primary network for all 3 of the blockchains as well as subscription fees for creating a subnet and blockchain are paid in AVAX and are burnt, creating deflationary pressure. AVAX is a fixed capped supply of 720 million tokens, creating scarcity rather than an unlimited supply which continuously increase of tokens at a compounded rate each year like others. Initially there will be 360 tokens minted at Mainnet with vesting periods between 1 and 10 years, with tokens gradually unlocking each quarter. The Circulating supply is 24.5 million AVAX with tokens gradually released each quater. The current market cap of AVAX is around $100 million.

Results

Avalanche’s AVAX with its fixed capped supply, deflationary pressure, very strong utility, potential to receive air drops and low market cap, means it scores ✅✅✅. Polkadot’s DOT also has very strong utility with the need for auctions to acquire parachain slots, but has no deflationary mechanisms, no fixed capped supply and already valued at $3.8 billion, therefore scores ✅✅. Cosmos’s ATOM token is only for the Cosmos Hub, of which there will be many hubs in the ecosystem and has very little utility currently. (this may improve once IBC is released and if Cosmos hub actually becomes the hub that people want to connect to and not something like Binance instead. There is no fixed capped supply and currently valued at $1.1 Billion, so scores ✅.
https://preview.redd.it/zb72eto5ehq51.png?width=1000&format=png&auto=webp&s=0ee102a2881d763296ad9ffba20667f531d2fd7a
All three are excellent projects and have similarities as well as many differences. Just to reiterate this article is not intended to be an extensive in-depth list, but rather an overview based on some of the criteria that I feel are most important. For a more in-depth view I recommend reading the articles for each of the projects linked above and coming to your own conclusions, you may have different criteria which is important to you, and score them differently. There won’t be one platform to rule them all however, with some uses cases better suited to one platform over another, and it’s not a zero-sum game. Blockchain is going to completely revolutionize industries and the Internet itself. The more projects researching and delivering breakthrough technology the better, each learning from each other and pushing each other to reach that goal earlier. The current market is a tiny speck of what’s in store in terms of value and adoption and it’s going to be exciting to watch it unfold.
https://preview.redd.it/fwi3clz7ehq51.png?width=1388&format=png&auto=webp&s=c91c1645a4c67defd5fc3aaec84f4a765e1c50b6
xSeq22x your post has been copied because one or more comments in this topic have been removed. This copy will preserve unmoderated topic. If you would like to opt-out, please send a message using [this link].
submitted by anticensor_bot to u/anticensor_bot [link] [comments]

Why i’m bullish on Zilliqa (long read)

Edit: TL;DR added in the comments
 
Hey all, I've been researching coins since 2017 and have gone through 100s of them in the last 3 years. I got introduced to blockchain via Bitcoin of course, analyzed Ethereum thereafter and from that moment I have a keen interest in smart contact platforms. I’m passionate about Ethereum but I find Zilliqa to have a better risk-reward ratio. Especially because Zilliqa has found an elegant balance between being secure, decentralized and scalable in my opinion.
 
Below I post my analysis of why from all the coins I went through I’m most bullish on Zilliqa (yes I went through Tezos, EOS, NEO, VeChain, Harmony, Algorand, Cardano etc.). Note that this is not investment advice and although it's a thorough analysis there is obviously some bias involved. Looking forward to what you all think!
 
Fun fact: the name Zilliqa is a play on ‘silica’ silicon dioxide which means “Silicon for the high-throughput consensus computer.”
 
This post is divided into (i) Technology, (ii) Business & Partnerships, and (iii) Marketing & Community. I’ve tried to make the technology part readable for a broad audience. If you’ve ever tried understanding the inner workings of Bitcoin and Ethereum you should be able to grasp most parts. Otherwise, just skim through and once you are zoning out head to the next part.
 
Technology and some more:
 
Introduction
 
The technology is one of the main reasons why I’m so bullish on Zilliqa. First thing you see on their website is: “Zilliqa is a high-performance, high-security blockchain platform for enterprises and next-generation applications.” These are some bold statements.
 
Before we deep dive into the technology let’s take a step back in time first as they have quite the history. The initial research paper from which Zilliqa originated dates back to August 2016: Elastico: A Secure Sharding Protocol For Open Blockchains where Loi Luu (Kyber Network) is one of the co-authors. Other ideas that led to the development of what Zilliqa has become today are: Bitcoin-NG, collective signing CoSi, ByzCoin and Omniledger.
 
The technical white paper was made public in August 2017 and since then they have achieved everything stated in the white paper and also created their own open source intermediate level smart contract language called Scilla (functional programming language similar to OCaml) too.
 
Mainnet is live since the end of January 2019 with daily transaction rates growing continuously. About a week ago mainnet reached 5 million transactions, 500.000+ addresses in total along with 2400 nodes keeping the network decentralized and secure. Circulating supply is nearing 11 billion and currently only mining rewards are left. The maximum supply is 21 billion with annual inflation being 7.13% currently and will only decrease with time.
 
Zilliqa realized early on that the usage of public cryptocurrencies and smart contracts were increasing but decentralized, secure, and scalable alternatives were lacking in the crypto space. They proposed to apply sharding onto a public smart contract blockchain where the transaction rate increases almost linear with the increase in the amount of nodes. More nodes = higher transaction throughput and increased decentralization. Sharding comes in many forms and Zilliqa uses network-, transaction- and computational sharding. Network sharding opens up the possibility of using transaction- and computational sharding on top. Zilliqa does not use state sharding for now. We’ll come back to this later.
 
Before we continue dissecting how Zilliqa achieves such from a technological standpoint it’s good to keep in mind that a blockchain being decentralised and secure and scalable is still one of the main hurdles in allowing widespread usage of decentralised networks. In my opinion this needs to be solved first before blockchains can get to the point where they can create and add large scale value. So I invite you to read the next section to grasp the underlying fundamentals. Because after all these premises need to be true otherwise there isn’t a fundamental case to be bullish on Zilliqa, right?
 
Down the rabbit hole
 
How have they achieved this? Let’s define the basics first: key players on Zilliqa are the users and the miners. A user is anybody who uses the blockchain to transfer funds or run smart contracts. Miners are the (shard) nodes in the network who run the consensus protocol and get rewarded for their service in Zillings (ZIL). The mining network is divided into several smaller networks called shards, which is also referred to as ‘network sharding’. Miners subsequently are randomly assigned to a shard by another set of miners called DS (Directory Service) nodes. The regular shards process transactions and the outputs of these shards are eventually combined by the DS shard as they reach consensus on the final state. More on how these DS shards reach consensus (via pBFT) will be explained later on.
 
The Zilliqa network produces two types of blocks: DS blocks and Tx blocks. One DS Block consists of 100 Tx Blocks. And as previously mentioned there are two types of nodes concerned with reaching consensus: shard nodes and DS nodes. Becoming a shard node or DS node is being defined by the result of a PoW cycle (Ethash) at the beginning of the DS Block. All candidate mining nodes compete with each other and run the PoW (Proof-of-Work) cycle for 60 seconds and the submissions achieving the highest difficulty will be allowed on the network. And to put it in perspective: the average difficulty for one DS node is ~ 2 Th/s equaling 2.000.000 Mh/s or 55 thousand+ GeForce GTX 1070 / 8 GB GPUs at 35.4 Mh/s. Each DS Block 10 new DS nodes are allowed. And a shard node needs to provide around 8.53 GH/s currently (around 240 GTX 1070s). Dual mining ETH/ETC and ZIL is possible and can be done via mining software such as Phoenix and Claymore. There are pools and if you have large amounts of hashing power (Ethash) available you could mine solo.
 
The PoW cycle of 60 seconds is a peak performance and acts as an entry ticket to the network. The entry ticket is called a sybil resistance mechanism and makes it incredibly hard for adversaries to spawn lots of identities and manipulate the network with these identities. And after every 100 Tx Blocks which corresponds to roughly 1,5 hour this PoW process repeats. In between these 1,5 hour, no PoW needs to be done meaning Zilliqa’s energy consumption to keep the network secure is low. For more detailed information on how mining works click here.
Okay, hats off to you. You have made it this far. Before we go any deeper down the rabbit hole we first must understand why Zilliqa goes through all of the above technicalities and understand a bit more what a blockchain on a more fundamental level is. Because the core of Zilliqa’s consensus protocol relies on the usage of pBFT (practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance) we need to know more about state machines and their function. Navigate to Viewblock, a Zilliqa block explorer, and just come back to this article. We will use this site to navigate through a few concepts.
 
We have established that Zilliqa is a public and distributed blockchain. Meaning that everyone with an internet connection can send ZILs, trigger smart contracts, etc. and there is no central authority who fully controls the network. Zilliqa and other public and distributed blockchains (like Bitcoin and Ethereum) can also be defined as state machines.
 
Taking the liberty of paraphrasing examples and definitions given by Samuel Brooks’ medium article, he describes the definition of a blockchain (like Zilliqa) as: “A peer-to-peer, append-only datastore that uses consensus to synchronize cryptographically-secure data”.
 
Next, he states that: "blockchains are fundamentally systems for managing valid state transitions”. For some more context, I recommend reading the whole medium article to get a better grasp of the definitions and understanding of state machines. Nevertheless, let’s try to simplify and compile it into a single paragraph. Take traffic lights as an example: all its states (red, amber, and green) are predefined, all possible outcomes are known and it doesn’t matter if you encounter the traffic light today or tomorrow. It will still behave the same. Managing the states of a traffic light can be done by triggering a sensor on the road or pushing a button resulting in one traffic lights’ state going from green to red (via amber) and another light from red to green.
 
With public blockchains like Zilliqa, this isn’t so straightforward and simple. It started with block #1 almost 1,5 years ago and every 45 seconds or so a new block linked to the previous block is being added. Resulting in a chain of blocks with transactions in it that everyone can verify from block #1 to the current #647.000+ block. The state is ever changing and the states it can find itself in are infinite. And while the traffic light might work together in tandem with various other traffic lights, it’s rather insignificant comparing it to a public blockchain. Because Zilliqa consists of 2400 nodes who need to work together to achieve consensus on what the latest valid state is while some of these nodes may have latency or broadcast issues, drop offline or are deliberately trying to attack the network, etc.
 
Now go back to the Viewblock page take a look at the amount of transaction, addresses, block and DS height and then hit refresh. Obviously as expected you see new incremented values on one or all parameters. And how did the Zilliqa blockchain manage to transition from a previous valid state to the latest valid state? By using pBFT to reach consensus on the latest valid state.
 
After having obtained the entry ticket, miners execute pBFT to reach consensus on the ever-changing state of the blockchain. pBFT requires a series of network communication between nodes, and as such there is no GPU involved (but CPU). Resulting in the total energy consumed to keep the blockchain secure, decentralized and scalable being low.
 
pBFT stands for practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance and is an optimization on the Byzantine Fault Tolerant algorithm. To quote Blockonomi: “In the context of distributed systems, Byzantine Fault Tolerance is the ability of a distributed computer network to function as desired and correctly reach a sufficient consensus despite malicious components (nodes) of the system failing or propagating incorrect information to other peers.” Zilliqa is such a distributed computer network and depends on the honesty of the nodes (shard and DS) to reach consensus and to continuously update the state with the latest block. If pBFT is a new term for you I can highly recommend the Blockonomi article.
 
The idea of pBFT was introduced in 1999 - one of the authors even won a Turing award for it - and it is well researched and applied in various blockchains and distributed systems nowadays. If you want more advanced information than the Blockonomi link provides click here. And if you’re in between Blockonomi and the University of Singapore read the Zilliqa Design Story Part 2 dating from October 2017.
Quoting from the Zilliqa tech whitepaper: “pBFT relies upon a correct leader (which is randomly selected) to begin each phase and proceed when the sufficient majority exists. In case the leader is byzantine it can stall the entire consensus protocol. To address this challenge, pBFT offers a view change protocol to replace the byzantine leader with another one.”
 
pBFT can tolerate ⅓ of the nodes being dishonest (offline counts as Byzantine = dishonest) and the consensus protocol will function without stalling or hiccups. Once there are more than ⅓ of dishonest nodes but no more than ⅔ the network will be stalled and a view change will be triggered to elect a new DS leader. Only when more than ⅔ of the nodes are dishonest (66%) double-spend attacks become possible.
 
If the network stalls no transactions can be processed and one has to wait until a new honest leader has been elected. When the mainnet was just launched and in its early phases, view changes happened regularly. As of today the last stalling of the network - and view change being triggered - was at the end of October 2019.
 
Another benefit of using pBFT for consensus besides low energy is the immediate finality it provides. Once your transaction is included in a block and the block is added to the chain it’s done. Lastly, take a look at this article where three types of finality are being defined: probabilistic, absolute and economic finality. Zilliqa falls under the absolute finality (just like Tendermint for example). Although lengthy already we skipped through some of the inner workings from Zilliqa’s consensus: read the Zilliqa Design Story Part 3 and you will be close to having a complete picture on it. Enough about PoW, sybil resistance mechanism, pBFT, etc. Another thing we haven’t looked at yet is the amount of decentralization.
 
Decentralisation
 
Currently, there are four shards, each one of them consisting of 600 nodes. 1 shard with 600 so-called DS nodes (Directory Service - they need to achieve a higher difficulty than shard nodes) and 1800 shard nodes of which 250 are shard guards (centralized nodes controlled by the team). The amount of shard guards has been steadily declining from 1200 in January 2019 to 250 as of May 2020. On the Viewblock statistics, you can see that many of the nodes are being located in the US but those are only the (CPU parts of the) shard nodes who perform pBFT. There is no data from where the PoW sources are coming. And when the Zilliqa blockchain starts reaching its transaction capacity limit, a network upgrade needs to be executed to lift the current cap of maximum 2400 nodes to allow more nodes and formation of more shards which will allow to network to keep on scaling according to demand.
Besides shard nodes there are also seed nodes. The main role of seed nodes is to serve as direct access points (for end-users and clients) to the core Zilliqa network that validates transactions. Seed nodes consolidate transaction requests and forward these to the lookup nodes (another type of nodes) for distribution to the shards in the network. Seed nodes also maintain the entire transaction history and the global state of the blockchain which is needed to provide services such as block explorers. Seed nodes in the Zilliqa network are comparable to Infura on Ethereum.
 
The seed nodes were first only operated by Zilliqa themselves, exchanges and Viewblock. Operators of seed nodes like exchanges had no incentive to open them for the greater public. They were centralised at first. Decentralisation at the seed nodes level has been steadily rolled out since March 2020 ( Zilliqa Improvement Proposal 3 ). Currently the amount of seed nodes is being increased, they are public-facing and at the same time PoS is applied to incentivize seed node operators and make it possible for ZIL holders to stake and earn passive yields. Important distinction: seed nodes are not involved with consensus! That is still PoW as entry ticket and pBFT for the actual consensus.
 
5% of the block rewards are being assigned to seed nodes (from the beginning in 2019) and those are being used to pay out ZIL stakers. The 5% block rewards with an annual yield of 10.03% translate to roughly 610 MM ZILs in total that can be staked. Exchanges use the custodial variant of staking and wallets like Moonlet will use the non-custodial version (starting in Q3 2020). Staking is being done by sending ZILs to a smart contract created by Zilliqa and audited by Quantstamp.
 
With a high amount of DS; shard nodes and seed nodes becoming more decentralized too, Zilliqa qualifies for the label of decentralized in my opinion.
 
Smart contracts
 
Let me start by saying I’m not a developer and my programming skills are quite limited. So I‘m taking the ELI5 route (maybe 12) but if you are familiar with Javascript, Solidity or specifically OCaml please head straight to Scilla - read the docs to get a good initial grasp of how Zilliqa’s smart contract language Scilla works and if you ask yourself “why another programming language?” check this article. And if you want to play around with some sample contracts in an IDE click here. The faucet can be found here. And more information on architecture, dapp development and API can be found on the Developer Portal.
If you are more into listening and watching: check this recent webinar explaining Zilliqa and Scilla. Link is time-stamped so you’ll start right away with a platform introduction, roadmap 2020 and afterwards a proper Scilla introduction.
 
Generalized: programming languages can be divided into being ‘object-oriented’ or ‘functional’. Here is an ELI5 given by software development academy: * “all programs have two basic components, data – what the program knows – and behavior – what the program can do with that data. So object-oriented programming states that combining data and related behaviors in one place, is called “object”, which makes it easier to understand how a particular program works. On the other hand, functional programming argues that data and behavior are different things and should be separated to ensure their clarity.” *
 
Scilla is on the functional side and shares similarities with OCaml: OCaml is a general-purpose programming language with an emphasis on expressiveness and safety. It has an advanced type system that helps catch your mistakes without getting in your way. It's used in environments where a single mistake can cost millions and speed matters, is supported by an active community, and has a rich set of libraries and development tools. For all its power, OCaml is also pretty simple, which is one reason it's often used as a teaching language.
 
Scilla is blockchain agnostic, can be implemented onto other blockchains as well, is recognized by academics and won a so-called Distinguished Artifact Award award at the end of last year.
 
One of the reasons why the Zilliqa team decided to create their own programming language focused on preventing smart contract vulnerabilities is that adding logic on a blockchain, programming, means that you cannot afford to make mistakes. Otherwise, it could cost you. It’s all great and fun blockchains being immutable but updating your code because you found a bug isn’t the same as with a regular web application for example. And with smart contracts, it inherently involves cryptocurrencies in some form thus value.
 
Another difference with programming languages on a blockchain is gas. Every transaction you do on a smart contract platform like Zilliqa or Ethereum costs gas. With gas you basically pay for computational costs. Sending a ZIL from address A to address B costs 0.001 ZIL currently. Smart contracts are more complex, often involve various functions and require more gas (if gas is a new concept click here ).
 
So with Scilla, similar to Solidity, you need to make sure that “every function in your smart contract will run as expected without hitting gas limits. An improper resource analysis may lead to situations where funds may get stuck simply because a part of the smart contract code cannot be executed due to gas limits. Such constraints are not present in traditional software systems”. Scilla design story part 1
 
Some examples of smart contract issues you’d want to avoid are: leaking funds, ‘unexpected changes to critical state variables’ (example: someone other than you setting his or her address as the owner of the smart contract after creation) or simply killing a contract.
 
Scilla also allows for formal verification. Wikipedia to the rescue: In the context of hardware and software systems, formal verification is the act of proving or disproving the correctness of intended algorithms underlying a system with respect to a certain formal specification or property, using formal methods of mathematics.
 
Formal verification can be helpful in proving the correctness of systems such as: cryptographic protocols, combinational circuits, digital circuits with internal memory, and software expressed as source code.
 
Scilla is being developed hand-in-hand with formalization of its semantics and its embedding into the Coq proof assistant — a state-of-the art tool for mechanized proofs about properties of programs.”
 
Simply put, with Scilla and accompanying tooling developers can be mathematically sure and proof that the smart contract they’ve written does what he or she intends it to do.
 
Smart contract on a sharded environment and state sharding
 
There is one more topic I’d like to touch on: smart contract execution in a sharded environment (and what is the effect of state sharding). This is a complex topic. I’m not able to explain it any easier than what is posted here. But I will try to compress the post into something easy to digest.
 
Earlier on we have established that Zilliqa can process transactions in parallel due to network sharding. This is where the linear scalability comes from. We can define simple transactions: a transaction from address A to B (Category 1), a transaction where a user interacts with one smart contract (Category 2) and the most complex ones where triggering a transaction results in multiple smart contracts being involved (Category 3). The shards are able to process transactions on their own without interference of the other shards. With Category 1 transactions that is doable, with Category 2 transactions sometimes if that address is in the same shard as the smart contract but with Category 3 you definitely need communication between the shards. Solving that requires to make a set of communication rules the protocol needs to follow in order to process all transactions in a generalised fashion.
 
And this is where the downsides of state sharding comes in currently. All shards in Zilliqa have access to the complete state. Yes the state size (0.1 GB at the moment) grows and all of the nodes need to store it but it also means that they don’t need to shop around for information available on other shards. Requiring more communication and adding more complexity. Computer science knowledge and/or developer knowledge required links if you want to dig further: Scilla - language grammar Scilla - Foundations for Verifiable Decentralised Computations on a Blockchain Gas Accounting NUS x Zilliqa: Smart contract language workshop
 
Easier to follow links on programming Scilla https://learnscilla.com/home Ivan on Tech
 
Roadmap / Zilliqa 2.0
 
There is no strict defined roadmap but here are topics being worked on. And via the Zilliqa website there is also more information on the projects they are working on.
 
Business & Partnerships
 
It’s not only technology in which Zilliqa seems to be excelling as their ecosystem has been expanding and starting to grow rapidly. The project is on a mission to provide OpenFinance (OpFi) to the world and Singapore is the right place to be due to its progressive regulations and futuristic thinking. Singapore has taken a proactive approach towards cryptocurrencies by introducing the Payment Services Act 2019 (PS Act). Among other things, the PS Act will regulate intermediaries dealing with certain cryptocurrencies, with a particular focus on consumer protection and anti-money laundering. It will also provide a stable regulatory licensing and operating framework for cryptocurrency entities, effectively covering all crypto businesses and exchanges based in Singapore. According to PWC 82% of the surveyed executives in Singapore reported blockchain initiatives underway and 13% of them have already brought the initiatives live to the market. There is also an increasing list of organizations that are starting to provide digital payment services. Moreover, Singaporean blockchain developers Building Cities Beyond has recently created an innovation $15 million grant to encourage development on its ecosystem. This all suggests that Singapore tries to position itself as (one of) the leading blockchain hubs in the world.
 
Zilliqa seems to already take advantage of this and recently helped launch Hg Exchange on their platform, together with financial institutions PhillipCapital, PrimePartners and Fundnel. Hg Exchange, which is now approved by the Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS), uses smart contracts to represent digital assets. Through Hg Exchange financial institutions worldwide can use Zilliqa's safe-by-design smart contracts to enable the trading of private equities. For example, think of companies such as Grab, Airbnb, SpaceX that are not available for public trading right now. Hg Exchange will allow investors to buy shares of private companies & unicorns and capture their value before an IPO. Anquan, the main company behind Zilliqa, has also recently announced that they became a partner and shareholder in TEN31 Bank, which is a fully regulated bank allowing for tokenization of assets and is aiming to bridge the gap between conventional banking and the blockchain world. If STOs, the tokenization of assets, and equity trading will continue to increase, then Zilliqa’s public blockchain would be the ideal candidate due to its strategic positioning, partnerships, regulatory compliance and the technology that is being built on top of it.
 
What is also very encouraging is their focus on banking the un(der)banked. They are launching a stablecoin basket starting with XSGD. As many of you know, stablecoins are currently mostly used for trading. However, Zilliqa is actively trying to broaden the use case of stablecoins. I recommend everybody to read this text that Amrit Kumar wrote (one of the co-founders). These stablecoins will be integrated in the traditional markets and bridge the gap between the crypto world and the traditional world. This could potentially revolutionize and legitimise the crypto space if retailers and companies will for example start to use stablecoins for payments or remittances, instead of it solely being used for trading.
 
Zilliqa also released their DeFi strategic roadmap (dating November 2019) which seems to be aligning well with their OpFi strategy. A non-custodial DEX is coming to Zilliqa made by Switcheo which allows cross-chain trading (atomic swaps) between ETH, EOS and ZIL based tokens. They also signed a Memorandum of Understanding for a (soon to be announced) USD stablecoin. And as Zilliqa is all about regulations and being compliant, I’m speculating on it to be a regulated USD stablecoin. Furthermore, XSGD is already created and visible on block explorer and XIDR (Indonesian Stablecoin) is also coming soon via StraitsX. Here also an overview of the Tech Stack for Financial Applications from September 2019. Further quoting Amrit Kumar on this:
 
There are two basic building blocks in DeFi/OpFi though: 1) stablecoins as you need a non-volatile currency to get access to this market and 2) a dex to be able to trade all these financial assets. The rest are built on top of these blocks.
 
So far, together with our partners and community, we have worked on developing these building blocks with XSGD as a stablecoin. We are working on bringing a USD-backed stablecoin as well. We will soon have a decentralised exchange developed by Switcheo. And with HGX going live, we are also venturing into the tokenization space. More to come in the future.”
 
Additionally, they also have this ZILHive initiative that injects capital into projects. There have been already 6 waves of various teams working on infrastructure, innovation and research, and they are not from ASEAN or Singapore only but global: see Grantees breakdown by country. Over 60 project teams from over 20 countries have contributed to Zilliqa's ecosystem. This includes individuals and teams developing wallets, explorers, developer toolkits, smart contract testing frameworks, dapps, etc. As some of you may know, Unstoppable Domains (UD) blew up when they launched on Zilliqa. UD aims to replace cryptocurrency addresses with a human-readable name and allows for uncensorable websites. Zilliqa will probably be the only one able to handle all these transactions onchain due to ability to scale and its resulting low fees which is why the UD team launched this on Zilliqa in the first place. Furthermore, Zilliqa also has a strong emphasis on security, compliance, and privacy, which is why they partnered with companies like Elliptic, ChainSecurity (part of PwC Switzerland), and Incognito. Their sister company Aqilliz (Zilliqa spelled backwards) focuses on revolutionizing the digital advertising space and is doing interesting things like using Zilliqa to track outdoor digital ads with companies like Foodpanda.
 
Zilliqa is listed on nearly all major exchanges, having several different fiat-gateways and recently have been added to Binance’s margin trading and futures trading with really good volume. They also have a very impressive team with good credentials and experience. They don't just have “tech people”. They have a mix of tech people, business people, marketeers, scientists, and more. Naturally, it's good to have a mix of people with different skill sets if you work in the crypto space.
 
Marketing & Community
 
Zilliqa has a very strong community. If you just follow their Twitter their engagement is much higher for a coin that has approximately 80k followers. They also have been ‘coin of the day’ by LunarCrush many times. LunarCrush tracks real-time cryptocurrency value and social data. According to their data, it seems Zilliqa has a more fundamental and deeper understanding of marketing and community engagement than almost all other coins. While almost all coins have been a bit frozen in the last months, Zilliqa seems to be on its own bull run. It was somewhere in the 100s a few months ago and is currently ranked #46 on CoinGecko. Their official Telegram also has over 20k people and is very active, and their community channel which is over 7k now is more active and larger than many other official channels. Their local communities also seem to be growing.
 
Moreover, their community started ‘Zillacracy’ together with the Zilliqa core team ( see www.zillacracy.com ). It’s a community-run initiative where people from all over the world are now helping with marketing and development on Zilliqa. Since its launch in February 2020 they have been doing a lot and will also run their own non-custodial seed node for staking. This seed node will also allow them to start generating revenue for them to become a self sustaining entity that could potentially scale up to become a decentralized company working in parallel with the Zilliqa core team. Comparing it to all the other smart contract platforms (e.g. Cardano, EOS, Tezos etc.) they don't seem to have started a similar initiative (correct me if I’m wrong though). This suggests in my opinion that these other smart contract platforms do not fully understand how to utilize the ‘power of the community’. This is something you cannot ‘buy with money’ and gives many projects in the space a disadvantage.
 
Zilliqa also released two social products called SocialPay and Zeeves. SocialPay allows users to earn ZILs while tweeting with a specific hashtag. They have recently used it in partnership with the Singapore Red Cross for a marketing campaign after their initial pilot program. It seems like a very valuable social product with a good use case. I can see a lot of traditional companies entering the space through this product, which they seem to suggest will happen. Tokenizing hashtags with smart contracts to get network effect is a very smart and innovative idea.
 
Regarding Zeeves, this is a tipping bot for Telegram. They already have 1000s of signups and they plan to keep upgrading it for more and more people to use it (e.g. they recently have added a quiz features). They also use it during AMAs to reward people in real-time. It’s a very smart approach to grow their communities and get familiar with ZIL. I can see this becoming very big on Telegram. This tool suggests, again, that the Zilliqa team has a deeper understanding of what the crypto space and community needs and is good at finding the right innovative tools to grow and scale.
 
To be honest, I haven’t covered everything (i’m also reaching the character limited haha). So many updates happening lately that it's hard to keep up, such as the International Monetary Fund mentioning Zilliqa in their report, custodial and non-custodial Staking, Binance Margin, Futures, Widget, entering the Indian market, and more. The Head of Marketing Colin Miles has also released this as an overview of what is coming next. And last but not least, Vitalik Buterin has been mentioning Zilliqa lately acknowledging Zilliqa and mentioning that both projects have a lot of room to grow. There is much more info of course and a good part of it has been served to you on a silver platter. I invite you to continue researching by yourself :-) And if you have any comments or questions please post here!
submitted by haveyouheardaboutit to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

CC Fullz Shop - Verified Haxker - EZ CASHOUTS


Are you stuck looking for cc fullz? purchase yours from a verified hacker usually.. i have over 1000+ cards available I tried some UK cards as well successfully. If you need it

my telegram is u/unknownhaxker

Feel free to join my telegram channel for FULLZ https://t.me/joinchat/AAAAAFk46fVyNEsaCArYjg

Please don’t go to me unless you’re experienced in clapping / carding













































































































































Ignore tags
Free bins cvv cvv2 fullz fullz cc free how to get fullz free bin lookup credit card numbers fraudbible fraudbible2020 fraud bible 2020 teejayx6 teejaymethod cashapp flipping Venmo PayPal carding cashapp dropping money flips easy money how to scam how to be a scammer yeezy method stockx method sell cc fresh, cc good, paypal account, bank login, bank transfer,track 1/2 pin, bank transfer, wu transfer sell bank login uk, online bank account hacking software, sell bank login, sell bank transfer, hacking bank account, hacking bank online, hacker bank transfer, hacker bank account sell track us, sell track us with pin, sell track track, sell track forum, sell track with pin, sell track track1 track2 sell track track 1/2 china, sell track china with pin, sell track dubai, track asian, sell track 101, sell track 201, track 101 pin sell cc au, sell cc au fresh good, sell cc au valid live, sell cc au best balance, sell cc au fullz info, sell cc shopping, cc shop, sell cc fullz sell cc eu, sell cc eu cheap live, sell cc eu fullz info, sell cc eu with bin, sell cc with bin, sell cc pass vbv, sell cc non, sell cc good cheap, sell fresh cc sell cc uk fresh, sell cc uk high balance, cc uk pass vbv, sell cc uk fullz info, sell cc uk, cc for sale, sell cc good live, sell cc valid, store cc CVV 2020 : 2020 ATM Dumps Card ,buy dumps pin ,buy dumps 2020 with pin ,Buy Dumps with PIN USA ,carding amazon ,carding tutorial ,cc dumps, sites CCV ,Shop cvv dumps ,dumps Dumps Card ATM ,dumps cvv ,dumps online ,dumps shop ,Dumps Track 1+2(101 ,dumps track with pin ,dumps usa with pin ,dumps with pin ,New Updates Dumps, Sale CVV Good Sell CVV check bin ,Sell CVV Fullz info ,Sell CVV Good ,Sell CVV Uk full ,Sell CVV USA Fresh ,Sell CVV with Dob, Sell Dumps Good ,Sell dumps Pin USA ,Sell Dumps Track 1+2, Sell Dumps Track 101 with PIN, Sell Dumps Track with Pin ,Sell Dumps USA Good ,Sell Dumps with Pin, Sell Dumps with Pin 101, Sell Dumps with PIN Track 1 Track 2 ,Sell Dumps with PIN Track 1 Track 2 Pin ,dumps shop , sell dumps , dumps with pin , sell dumps with pin , sell dumps shop , buy dumps shop , dumps with pin store , buy dumps ,sell track 1&2 + pin , sell track , buy track 1&2 + pin 2020 , sell shop , buy shop , seller dumps , verify dumps shop , valid dumps shop , valid shop ,valid dumps 2020 , good dumps 2020 , good dumps shop , good shop ,sell track 1 , sell track 2 , dumps shop eu , dumps shop chinese , sell dumps us , sell dumps chinese , sell atm skimmer , sell strype card , sell msr ,sell Plastic card ,sell dumps , dumpsshop
carder?? credit card dumps, cc dumps, fresh dumps, dumps with pin, credit card dumps for sale, sell dumps, sell dumps, shop dumps, shop dumps ,buy dumps, buy dumps, good dumps, sell dumps good, sell dumps vaild, track 1&2, dumps shop online, dumps with pin, buy best dumps, dump store, dumps shop online, best dumps shop, dumps buy, fresh cc dumps, good dumps, sell dumps good, sell dumps shop, dumps with pin 2017, sell dumps track 1/2, credit card dumps




selling,Cvv2,fullz,Dumps+Track 1\2+acc,Paypal+contact me Email: [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])
Yahoo ID: shoppywilliams Gmail : shoppywilliams u/gmail.com Google talk : shoppywilliams Outlook: shoppywilliams u/outlook.com
MAIL : I'm a hacker good and seller cvv good so now i have more cc for sale

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!WELLCOME TO ALL CUSTOMER!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
2014 !

Contact

Email: [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])

Yahoo ID: shoppywilliams

Gmail : shoppywilliams u/gmail.com

Google talk : shoppywilliams

Outlook: shoppywilliams u/outlook.com

==>> I'M A BIG HACKER REALLY IN ALL FORUM
===> I'm Seller for: CC, CVV US,UK,CA, EURO,AU, Italian,Japan,France,...all cc !
CC fullz info, CC DOB....for All !
- Us ( vis,mas ) = 5$/1cvv
- Us ( dis,amex ) = 7$/1cvv
- Uk ( vis,mas ) = 10$/1cvv
- Uk ( amex,dis) = 15$/1cvv
- Au = 15$/1cvv
- Ca = 15$/1cvv
- Eu = 20$/1cvv
- Itali = 20$/1cvv
- Spain = 20$/1cvv
- Denmark = 25$/1cvv
- Sweden = 20$/1cvv
- France = 15$/1
- Germany = 15$/1
- Ireland = 15$/1
- New zeland = 15$/1
- Switherland = 15$/1
- Slovakia = 15$/1
- Middle East = 15$/1cvv
- Asia = 15$/1cvv
- Uk with bin = 20$
- Uk with dob = 25$
- Uk with bin + dob = 30$
- Us full = 25$/1cvv
- Uk full = 35$/1cvv
- Eu full = 40$/1cvv
- And All CC - CVV Country

--------------------

CC fullz info, CC DOBDomain hosting.
PRICE LIST ALL CVV CVV2.
1cc US (visa) : 5$
1cc US(master) : 6$
1cc US(amex/discover):8$
1cc US with bin : 9$
1cc US fullz : 18$
1cc uk random : 10$
1cc uk with dob : 20$
1cc uk with bin : 10$
1cc uk bin dob : 25$
1cc uk fullz : 30$
1cc eu(visa /master) : 15$
1cc eu(Amex/Discover): 15$
1cc ca random : 6$
1cc ca bin : 12$
1cc ca fulls : 20$
1cc au random : 7$
1cc france : 15$
1cc france with dob : 20$
1cc germany : 15$
1cc germany with dob : 25$
1cc italy : 20$
1cc italy with dob : 40$
1cc japan : 15$
1cc japan with dob : 25$
1cc belgium : 12$
1cc denmark : 12$
1cc spain : 15$

Sample : Fresh FULZ INDIA

Number: 557664432400xxxx
EXP: 0316
CVV: 839
Name: Pankaj Kumar Neo
Country: INDIA
ZIP: 221010
City: Varanasi
Street: Flat no.15 siddarth
Phone: 054222227xx
DOB: 03/10/1981
SSN: none
MMN: Padama Devi Neot
Vbv1: 839
Vbv2: 1073

--------------------

Sample : Fresh UK FULZ

Account Open In: LD
Online ID: rgunn1x
ATM or Check Card PIN: 001755
Passcode: eg15
----------Credit/Debit Card and Other Accounts Details--------
CC Number: 4917541519978xxx
Exp Date: 05/2016
Cvv: 54x
CC PinNumber: eg1x
Account Number: 0520016xx
Routing Number: 365xxx
----------Credit/Debit Card ----------
Full Name: Ted Maclean
Address Line 1: 33 dorset house
Address Line 2: 4 kettering road
City: london
Zipcode: en3 6xa
Phone Number:+4470358425
E-mail: rg.gunn
----------Identification--------------

DOB: 04-04-1953
MMN: pinkney
Driver's Liecence No: g50076xxxxxx
-----SiteKeyChallengec Questions---

--------------------------

Format is:
Card Number | Exp. Date | CVV/CVV2 | First Name | Last Name | Street
City | State | Zip Code | Country | Phone | Type Of Card | Bank Name

All our cc are checked before sending.
We guarantee that our cc are good with good balances!
- RULE 1: I never sell the same CC, CVV to more than a person.
- RULE 2: I don't share CC, CVV for test free.
- RULE 3: All my CC, CVV always are fresh and live.
- RULE 4: All my CC, CVVs are checked.

*USA:101
MasterCard Standart, Visa Classic - $40
Visa Gold|Platinum|Corporate|Signature|Business ? $40
American Express - $30 ( WITHOUT SID )
Discover - $50

*CANADA:101 201
MasterCard, Visa Classic - $50
Visa Gold|Platinum|Corporate|Signature|Business ? $50

*EU:101 201
MasterCard, Visa Classic - $90
Visa Gold|Platinum|Corporate|Signature|Business ? $130
*Other countries:101 201MasterCard| Visa Classic - $70
Visa Gold|Platinum|Corporate|Signature|Business ? $100

*ASIA/AUSTRALIA/Exotic:101 , 201 , 121 and others
MasterCard| Visa Classic - $50
Visa Gold|Platinum|Corporate|Signature|Business ? $70

MSR PRICE :

MSR505 / MSR2000 : $ 549
MSR505 / MSR300* : $ 499
MSR505 / TA-48 : $ 639
MSR206 / MSR3000 : $ 729
MSR206 / MSR300 : $ 549
MSR206 2x MSR400 : $ 900
MSR206 2x MSR500m (Mini123) : $ 875
MSR206 2x TA-32 : $ 990
MSR206 2x CRM42 : $ 869
MSR206 2xCRM41 : $ 929

Uk CVV $20 for one Amex/Disc FULLZ INFO
Uk CVV $20 for one MasteVisa FULLZ INFO
Uk with dob $25 for one cw FULLZ INFO
EU CVV $20 for one Disc/Amex FULLZ INFO
EU CVV $25 with DOB for one MasteVisa FULLZ INFO
ARAB CVV $30 MasteVisa FULLZ INFO
US FULL INFO CC $25 DOB SSN ETCCCCCCCC
MIX CC ONLY
UK CC NORMAL $9 WITH DOB $25 Randon with Bin $1 extra fee

Sample Fresh US FULZ

Full Name : james gilmor
Date of Birth : Aug/28/xxxx
Mother's Maiden Name : gunderman
Social Security Number : 090/42/xxxx
Home Phone Number : 516-935-xxxx
Adress Line 1 : 125 cortland ave
Adress Line 2 :
City : hicksville
State : ny
Zip Code : 11801
Contry : United States

Debit or credit card number : 559460000069xxxx
Expiration date : 06 / 15
Card Verification Number : 991x
SecourCode : 748
Card Signature/PIN : 038x

------------------

First Name : Donna
Middle Name : L
Last Name : Buchanax
Spouse Name :
Father Name :
Billing Address : 9970C W. Royal Oak Rd.
City : Sun City
State : AZ
Zip Code : 85351
Country : US
Phone Number : 623-974-9422
Credit Card Information :
*********
Card Type : Debit
Credit Card Number : 474488008092xxxx
Exp. Date : 3/March / 2016
Name On Card : Donna L. Buchanan
Cvv2 : 822
Mother Maiden Name : Edwards
Social Security Number : 365420562
Birth Day : 23
Birth Month : 09
Birth Year : 1943
Card Verification Number : 991x
SecourCode : 748
Card Signature/PIN : 038x
Account Information :
*******
AOL ID : [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])
Password : luper123
-------------------------------

======> Prices For Western Union Online -Transfer(Eu,Uk,Asia,Ca,Us,France,Ger,Ita,AU and very easy to cashout
African)
=====>>> do Transfer WU ($ / £ / Euro )
-500$ = 9000$
-300$ = 5000$
-200$ = 3000$
-100$ = 1500$

After Payment 45Min u will get MTCN to cash money

MTCN : 386-919-3122 / 112-378-6613 / 075-973-8623 / .........!!!!
=====>>> Acc Paypal
And have more Bank account login with more country , If u real want to buy and make bussiness with me let's

---With Paypal Veritified-----

- Paypal Veritified with balance 1000$ = 100$
- Paypal Veritified with balance 3000$ = 200$
- Paypal Veritified with balance 5000$ = 350$
- Paypal Veritified with balance 8000$ = 500$

I only have some balance like as , so someone don't ask me about low balance or high balance about paypal

-------------------------------------------------- --------------------

=====> With Bank and Tracks,Dumps
- Tracks 1&2 US = 55$ per 1
- Tracks 1&2 UK = 70$ per 1
- Tracks 1&2 ca / au = 80$ per 1
- Tracks 1&2 EU = 90$ per 1

Will check with hight balance

Track1=5232556061018719WYATT/ROBERTSON1007101171410000271000000
Track2=5232556061018719=10071011000042400000
pin: 5678 5432,5187 ,5505,and much pin other

=====>>> Ship shop all
Ship iphone : 4g 150$ per 1
Ship iphone : 3gs 100$ per 1
Ship ipad : 150$ per 1
Ship Laptop : Vaio 200$ per 1
Ship Laptop : Dell 150$ per 1
Ship Laptop : HP 100$ per 1
SHIP LAPTOP APPLE = 150$
SHIP LAPTOP HP + DELL = 120$
SHIP LAPTOP TOSHIBA = 80$
SHIP LAPTOP LENOVO = 100$

=====>>> Bank Logins Prices US UK CA AU EU
1 . Balance > 5000 = 200$
2 . Balance > 10000 = 350$
3 . Balance > 15000 = 500$
4 . Balance > 20000 = 650$
5 . Balance > 27000 = 800$

Balance In Chase : 70K To 155K = 160$
Balance In Wachovia : 24K To 80K = 80$
Balance In Boa : 75K To 450K = 300$
Balance In Credit Union : Any Amount = 300$
Balance In Hallifax : ANY AMOUNT = 300$
Balance In Compass : ANY AMOUNT = 300$
Balance In Wellsfargo : ANY AMOUNT = 300$
Balance In Barclays : 80K To 100K = 400$
Balance In Abbey : 82K = 700$
Balance in Hsbc : 50K = 350$

---------Contact -----------

+++++++++++Skype ID : cvvcharlie2014

- And have more Bank account login with more country
- If u real want to buy and make bussiness with me let's contact me now
- dont trust dont talk more
- you send money => i send Cvv2 good
- no test free
- u can buy 1 test,if good u can buy more
- if not good ,i will change for u
- i very hate do spam or rip and i don't want who spam me
- all my cvv are tested before sell, that's sure
- i accept PM (Perfect money) or WU but i only accept WU > 100
- I was so happy to see you actually make more money from the business with me
thank you all ... When you believe I and work with me
- contact me ...if you need me

I ACCEPT PAYMENT ONLY : PERFECT MONEY or WESTERN UNION or BITCOIN or EGOPAY

MY CONTACT INFOS..:

Email: [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])

Yahoo ID: shoppywilliams

Gmail : shoppywilliams u/gmail.com

Google talk : shoppywilliams

Outlook: shoppywilliams u/outlook.com

NO TEST
NO DEMO
NO FREE FRESH OR DEAD CARD
CONTACT ME ONLY WHEN U READY TO BUY OR READY FOR GOOD DEAL

-------- SELL GOOD STUFFS BOOK ALL TICKETS NOW --------
submitted by unknownhaxkerr to EscrowMarket [link] [comments]

CC Fullz Shop - Verified Haxker - Famous on HF Forums


Are you stuck looking for cc fullz? purchase yours from a verified hacker usually.. i have over 1000+ cards available I tried some UK cards as well successfully. If you need it

my telegram is u/unknownhaxker

Feel free to join my telegram channel for FULLZ https://t.me/joinchat/AAAAAFk46fVyNEsaCArYjg

Please don’t go to me unless you’re experienced in clapping / carding

Ignore tags
Free bins cvv cvv2 fullz fullz cc free how to get fullz free bin lookup credit card numbers fraudbible fraudbible2020 fraud bible 2020 teejayx6 teejaymethod cashapp flipping Venmo PayPal carding cashapp dropping money flips easy money how to scam how to be a scammer yeezy method stockx method sell cc fresh, cc good, paypal account, bank login, bank transfer,track 1/2 pin, bank transfer, wu transfer sell bank login uk, online bank account hacking software, sell bank login, sell bank transfer, hacking bank account, hacking bank online, hacker bank transfer, hacker bank account sell track us, sell track us with pin, sell track track, sell track forum, sell track with pin, sell track track1 track2 sell track track 1/2 china, sell track china with pin, sell track dubai, track asian, sell track 101, sell track 201, track 101 pin sell cc au, sell cc au fresh good, sell cc au valid live, sell cc au best balance, sell cc au fullz info, sell cc shopping, cc shop, sell cc fullz sell cc eu, sell cc eu cheap live, sell cc eu fullz info, sell cc eu with bin, sell cc with bin, sell cc pass vbv, sell cc non, sell cc good cheap, sell fresh cc sell cc uk fresh, sell cc uk high balance, cc uk pass vbv, sell cc uk fullz info, sell cc uk, cc for sale, sell cc good live, sell cc valid, store cc CVV 2020 : 2020 ATM Dumps Card ,buy dumps pin ,buy dumps 2020 with pin ,Buy Dumps with PIN USA ,carding amazon ,carding tutorial ,cc dumps, sites CCV ,Shop cvv dumps ,dumps Dumps Card ATM ,dumps cvv ,dumps online ,dumps shop ,Dumps Track 1+2(101 ,dumps track with pin ,dumps usa with pin ,dumps with pin ,New Updates Dumps, Sale CVV Good Sell CVV check bin ,Sell CVV Fullz info ,Sell CVV Good ,Sell CVV Uk full ,Sell CVV USA Fresh ,Sell CVV with Dob, Sell Dumps Good ,Sell dumps Pin USA ,Sell Dumps Track 1+2, Sell Dumps Track 101 with PIN, Sell Dumps Track with Pin ,Sell Dumps USA Good ,Sell Dumps with Pin, Sell Dumps with Pin 101, Sell Dumps with PIN Track 1 Track 2 ,Sell Dumps with PIN Track 1 Track 2 Pin ,dumps shop , sell dumps , dumps with pin , sell dumps with pin , sell dumps shop , buy dumps shop , dumps with pin store , buy dumps ,sell track 1&2 + pin , sell track , buy track 1&2 + pin 2020 , sell shop , buy shop , seller dumps , verify dumps shop , valid dumps shop , valid shop ,valid dumps 2020 , good dumps 2020 , good dumps shop , good shop ,sell track 1 , sell track 2 , dumps shop eu , dumps shop chinese , sell dumps us , sell dumps chinese , sell atm skimmer , sell strype card , sell msr ,sell Plastic card ,sell dumps , dumpsshop
carder?? credit card dumps, cc dumps, fresh dumps, dumps with pin, credit card dumps for sale, sell dumps, sell dumps, shop dumps, shop dumps ,buy dumps, buy dumps, good dumps, sell dumps good, sell dumps vaild, track 1&2, dumps shop online, dumps with pin, buy best dumps, dump store, dumps shop online, best dumps shop, dumps buy, fresh cc dumps, good dumps, sell dumps good, sell dumps shop, dumps with pin 2017, sell dumps track 1/2, credit card dumps













































selling,Cvv2,fullz,Dumps+Track 1\2+acc,Paypal+contact me Email: [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])
Yahoo ID: shoppywilliams Gmail : shoppywilliams u/gmail.com Google talk : shoppywilliams Outlook: shoppywilliams u/outlook.com
MAIL : I'm a hacker good and seller cvv good so now i have more cc for sale

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!WELLCOME TO ALL CUSTOMER!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
2014 !

Contact

Email: [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])

Yahoo ID: shoppywilliams

Gmail : shoppywilliams u/gmail.com

Google talk : shoppywilliams

Outlook: shoppywilliams u/outlook.com

==>> I'M A BIG HACKER REALLY IN ALL FORUM
===> I'm Seller for: CC, CVV US,UK,CA, EURO,AU, Italian,Japan,France,...all cc !
CC fullz info, CC DOB....for All !
- Us ( vis,mas ) = 5$/1cvv
- Us ( dis,amex ) = 7$/1cvv
- Uk ( vis,mas ) = 10$/1cvv
- Uk ( amex,dis) = 15$/1cvv
- Au = 15$/1cvv
- Ca = 15$/1cvv
- Eu = 20$/1cvv
- Itali = 20$/1cvv
- Spain = 20$/1cvv
- Denmark = 25$/1cvv
- Sweden = 20$/1cvv
- France = 15$/1
- Germany = 15$/1
- Ireland = 15$/1
- New zeland = 15$/1
- Switherland = 15$/1
- Slovakia = 15$/1
- Middle East = 15$/1cvv
- Asia = 15$/1cvv
- Uk with bin = 20$
- Uk with dob = 25$
- Uk with bin + dob = 30$
- Us full = 25$/1cvv
- Uk full = 35$/1cvv
- Eu full = 40$/1cvv
- And All CC - CVV Country

--------------------

CC fullz info, CC DOBDomain hosting.
PRICE LIST ALL CVV CVV2.
1cc US (visa) : 5$
1cc US(master) : 6$
1cc US(amex/discover):8$
1cc US with bin : 9$
1cc US fullz : 18$
1cc uk random : 10$
1cc uk with dob : 20$
1cc uk with bin : 10$
1cc uk bin dob : 25$
1cc uk fullz : 30$
1cc eu(visa /master) : 15$
1cc eu(Amex/Discover): 15$
1cc ca random : 6$
1cc ca bin : 12$
1cc ca fulls : 20$
1cc au random : 7$
1cc france : 15$
1cc france with dob : 20$
1cc germany : 15$
1cc germany with dob : 25$
1cc italy : 20$
1cc italy with dob : 40$
1cc japan : 15$
1cc japan with dob : 25$
1cc belgium : 12$
1cc denmark : 12$
1cc spain : 15$

Sample : Fresh FULZ INDIA

Number: 557664432400xxxx
EXP: 0316
CVV: 839
Name: Pankaj Kumar Neo
Country: INDIA
ZIP: 221010
City: Varanasi
Street: Flat no.15 siddarth
Phone: 054222227xx
DOB: 03/10/1981
SSN: none
MMN: Padama Devi Neot
Vbv1: 839
Vbv2: 1073

--------------------

Sample : Fresh UK FULZ

Account Open In: LD
Online ID: rgunn1x
ATM or Check Card PIN: 001755
Passcode: eg15
----------Credit/Debit Card and Other Accounts Details--------
CC Number: 4917541519978xxx
Exp Date: 05/2016
Cvv: 54x
CC PinNumber: eg1x
Account Number: 0520016xx
Routing Number: 365xxx
----------Credit/Debit Card ----------
Full Name: Ted Maclean
Address Line 1: 33 dorset house
Address Line 2: 4 kettering road
City: london
Zipcode: en3 6xa
Phone Number:+4470358425
E-mail: rg.gunn
----------Identification--------------

DOB: 04-04-1953
MMN: pinkney
Driver's Liecence No: g50076xxxxxx
-----SiteKeyChallengec Questions---

--------------------------

Format is:
Card Number | Exp. Date | CVV/CVV2 | First Name | Last Name | Street
City | State | Zip Code | Country | Phone | Type Of Card | Bank Name

All our cc are checked before sending.
We guarantee that our cc are good with good balances!
- RULE 1: I never sell the same CC, CVV to more than a person.
- RULE 2: I don't share CC, CVV for test free.
- RULE 3: All my CC, CVV always are fresh and live.
- RULE 4: All my CC, CVVs are checked.

*USA:101
MasterCard Standart, Visa Classic - $40
Visa Gold|Platinum|Corporate|Signature|Business ? $40
American Express - $30 ( WITHOUT SID )
Discover - $50

*CANADA:101 201
MasterCard, Visa Classic - $50
Visa Gold|Platinum|Corporate|Signature|Business ? $50

*EU:101 201
MasterCard, Visa Classic - $90
Visa Gold|Platinum|Corporate|Signature|Business ? $130
*Other countries:101 201MasterCard| Visa Classic - $70
Visa Gold|Platinum|Corporate|Signature|Business ? $100

*ASIA/AUSTRALIA/Exotic:101 , 201 , 121 and others
MasterCard| Visa Classic - $50
Visa Gold|Platinum|Corporate|Signature|Business ? $70

MSR PRICE :

MSR505 / MSR2000 : $ 549
MSR505 / MSR300* : $ 499
MSR505 / TA-48 : $ 639
MSR206 / MSR3000 : $ 729
MSR206 / MSR300 : $ 549
MSR206 2x MSR400 : $ 900
MSR206 2x MSR500m (Mini123) : $ 875
MSR206 2x TA-32 : $ 990
MSR206 2x CRM42 : $ 869
MSR206 2xCRM41 : $ 929

Uk CVV $20 for one Amex/Disc FULLZ INFO
Uk CVV $20 for one MasteVisa FULLZ INFO
Uk with dob $25 for one cw FULLZ INFO
EU CVV $20 for one Disc/Amex FULLZ INFO
EU CVV $25 with DOB for one MasteVisa FULLZ INFO
ARAB CVV $30 MasteVisa FULLZ INFO
US FULL INFO CC $25 DOB SSN ETCCCCCCCC
MIX CC ONLY
UK CC NORMAL $9 WITH DOB $25 Randon with Bin $1 extra fee

Sample Fresh US FULZ

Full Name : james gilmor
Date of Birth : Aug/28/xxxx
Mother's Maiden Name : gunderman
Social Security Number : 090/42/xxxx
Home Phone Number : 516-935-xxxx
Adress Line 1 : 125 cortland ave
Adress Line 2 :
City : hicksville
State : ny
Zip Code : 11801
Contry : United States

Debit or credit card number : 559460000069xxxx
Expiration date : 06 / 15
Card Verification Number : 991x
SecourCode : 748
Card Signature/PIN : 038x

------------------

First Name : Donna
Middle Name : L
Last Name : Buchanax
Spouse Name :
Father Name :
Billing Address : 9970C W. Royal Oak Rd.
City : Sun City
State : AZ
Zip Code : 85351
Country : US
Phone Number : 623-974-9422
Credit Card Information :
*********
Card Type : Debit
Credit Card Number : 474488008092xxxx
Exp. Date : 3/March / 2016
Name On Card : Donna L. Buchanan
Cvv2 : 822
Mother Maiden Name : Edwards
Social Security Number : 365420562
Birth Day : 23
Birth Month : 09
Birth Year : 1943
Card Verification Number : 991x
SecourCode : 748
Card Signature/PIN : 038x
Account Information :
*******
AOL ID : [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])
Password : luper123
-------------------------------

======> Prices For Western Union Online -Transfer(Eu,Uk,Asia,Ca,Us,France,Ger,Ita,AU and very easy to cashout
African)
=====>>> do Transfer WU ($ / £ / Euro )
-500$ = 9000$
-300$ = 5000$
-200$ = 3000$
-100$ = 1500$

After Payment 45Min u will get MTCN to cash money

MTCN : 386-919-3122 / 112-378-6613 / 075-973-8623 / .........!!!!
=====>>> Acc Paypal
And have more Bank account login with more country , If u real want to buy and make bussiness with me let's

---With Paypal Veritified-----

- Paypal Veritified with balance 1000$ = 100$
- Paypal Veritified with balance 3000$ = 200$
- Paypal Veritified with balance 5000$ = 350$
- Paypal Veritified with balance 8000$ = 500$

I only have some balance like as , so someone don't ask me about low balance or high balance about paypal

-------------------------------------------------- --------------------

=====> With Bank and Tracks,Dumps
- Tracks 1&2 US = 55$ per 1
- Tracks 1&2 UK = 70$ per 1
- Tracks 1&2 ca / au = 80$ per 1
- Tracks 1&2 EU = 90$ per 1

Will check with hight balance

Track1=5232556061018719WYATT/ROBERTSON1007101171410000271000000
Track2=5232556061018719=10071011000042400000
pin: 5678 5432,5187 ,5505,and much pin other

=====>>> Ship shop all
Ship iphone : 4g 150$ per 1
Ship iphone : 3gs 100$ per 1
Ship ipad : 150$ per 1
Ship Laptop : Vaio 200$ per 1
Ship Laptop : Dell 150$ per 1
Ship Laptop : HP 100$ per 1
SHIP LAPTOP APPLE = 150$
SHIP LAPTOP HP + DELL = 120$
SHIP LAPTOP TOSHIBA = 80$
SHIP LAPTOP LENOVO = 100$

=====>>> Bank Logins Prices US UK CA AU EU
1 . Balance > 5000 = 200$
2 . Balance > 10000 = 350$
3 . Balance > 15000 = 500$
4 . Balance > 20000 = 650$
5 . Balance > 27000 = 800$

Balance In Chase : 70K To 155K = 160$
Balance In Wachovia : 24K To 80K = 80$
Balance In Boa : 75K To 450K = 300$
Balance In Credit Union : Any Amount = 300$
Balance In Hallifax : ANY AMOUNT = 300$
Balance In Compass : ANY AMOUNT = 300$
Balance In Wellsfargo : ANY AMOUNT = 300$
Balance In Barclays : 80K To 100K = 400$
Balance In Abbey : 82K = 700$
Balance in Hsbc : 50K = 350$

---------Contact -----------

+++++++++++Skype ID : cvvcharlie2014

- And have more Bank account login with more country
- If u real want to buy and make bussiness with me let's contact me now
- dont trust dont talk more
- you send money => i send Cvv2 good
- no test free
- u can buy 1 test,if good u can buy more
- if not good ,i will change for u
- i very hate do spam or rip and i don't want who spam me
- all my cvv are tested before sell, that's sure
- i accept PM (Perfect money) or WU but i only accept WU > 100
- I was so happy to see you actually make more money from the business with me
thank you all ... When you believe I and work with me
- contact me ...if you need me

I ACCEPT PAYMENT ONLY : PERFECT MONEY or WESTERN UNION or BITCOIN or EGOPAY

MY CONTACT INFOS..:

Email: [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])

Yahoo ID: shoppywilliams

Gmail : shoppywilliams u/gmail.com

Google talk : shoppywilliams

Outlook: shoppywilliams u/outlook.com

NO TEST
NO DEMO
NO FREE FRESH OR DEAD CARD
CONTACT ME ONLY WHEN U READY TO BUY OR READY FOR GOOD DEAL

-------- SELL GOOD STUFFS BOOK ALL TICKETS NOW --------
submitted by unknownhaxkerr to market [link] [comments]

How to find your bitcoin address on cex.io - YouTube Coinbase - How to Find your Bitcoin wallet address - YouTube How to get a Bitcoin Wallet Address - FREE & in under a ... How To Create A Bitcoin Address Validation Form How to fix Bitcoin Cash invalid wallet address problem ...

A valid Bitcoin address is like a bank account number using which you store your bitcoins and check your balances. For those who are seeing their Bitcoin addresses for the first time, I would say that it won’t look like traditional bank account number but instead, it looks like a long alphanumeric string starting usually with ‘1’ or ‘3”. Write a program that takes a bitcoin address as argument, and checks whether or not this address is valid. A bitcoin address uses a base58 encoding, which uses an alphabet of the characters 0 .. 9, A ..Z, a .. z, but without the four characters: 0 zero O uppercase oh I uppercase eye l lowercase ell; With this encoding, a bitcoin address encodes 25 bytes: the first byte is the version number ... Bitcoin Address Validator. Check a Bitcoin address for its validity. This tool will see if the given string of text is indeed a correct and valid Bitcoin address. This tool can come in handy when verifying an address before sending any Bitcoins to it. Some key facts about valid Bitcoin addresses: A Bitcoin address is between 25 and 34 ... Valid Address Checker. One of the current problems for novice users of bitcoin is the large address that is sent to and from other users. Additionally, once funds are sent there is no way to retrieve them. Finding the physical owner of a bitcoin address could also be problematic, so the best thing is to have a Valid Address Checker. In this ... A Bitcoin address, or simply address, is an identifier of 27-34 alphanumeric characters, beginning with the number 1, 3 or bc1, that represents a possible destination for a bitcoin payment.Addresses can be generated at no cost by any user of Bitcoin. It is also possible to get a Bitcoin address using an account at an exchange or online wallet service.

[index] [13068] [40077] [30756] [35390] [16324] [5974] [30019] [29007] [27453] [22991]

How to find your bitcoin address on cex.io - YouTube

get back to us ( [email protected]) Find the private key of Any Blockchain address 2019 latest way, We only communicate Via Email and help many as we can, ... In this video I go over how to create a simple form that validates the checksum of a bitcoin address. Link to RosettaCode: rosettacode.org/wiki/Bitcoin/addre... If you want to someone to send you money to your Bitcoin account, Give them this address. you may donate to our network via Bitcoin as well :) Bitcoin addres... Link :: http://cashaddr.bitcoincash.org For more tricks :: https://bit.ly/2R2LTt8 Bitcoin cash BCH Invalid wallet address problem sloved how to fix s... http://coinrepublic.com/ This video explains how to log into and get your Bitcoin Wallet Address in the Coinbase online wallet system. https://coinbase.com/?...

#